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Revolutionizing Autonomous Systems at Scale: A DARPA Initiative

In an era where technology is evolving at an unprecedented pace, the Department of Defense (DoD) is taking significant steps to harness the power of Autonomous Systems at Scale. This groundbreaking initiative, under the Open Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) topic, is aimed at developing cutting-edge autonomous systems that not only reduce the risk to service members in dangerous environments but also enhance the efficiency of manual-labor tasks, ultimately reshaping military tactics.

The Objective: Advancing Autonomous Systems

The primary objective of the Autonomous Systems at Scale Open SBIR topic, supported by the OUSD (R&E) Critical Technology Areas of Advanced Computing and Software, Human-Machine Interfaces, Microelectronics, Trusted AI, and Autonomy, is clear: Develop autonomous systems capable of removing service members from perilous situations while significantly accelerating manual-labor tasks. The implications of achieving this objective are profound, as it could lead to paradigm-shifting changes in military operations.

Unleashing the Power of Autonomy

At the heart of this initiative lies the recognition that the DoD’s global presence often necessitates extensive manpower engaged in repetitive and often mundane tasks. Autonomous solutions have the potential to act as formidable force multipliers, relieving human operators of these burdensome responsibilities and, most importantly, minimizing the risks faced by military personnel.

For instance, consider Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) operations, where human technicians follow written instructions to handle well-understood ordnance. These operations, whether executed manually or through the remote operation of Unmanned Systems (UxS), often place human operators in harm’s way. The key to reducing these risks lies in removing humans from the immediate danger zone, enabling them to prioritize addressing new and unforeseen threats.

Overcoming Domain-Specific Challenges

Developing autonomous solutions for well-defined problems presents a unique set of challenges that vary by domain. Ground-based systems contend with environmental obstacles, aerial vehicles grapple with power limitations, and unmanned underwater vehicles face communication restrictions. Furthermore, many fielded systems lack interoperable architectures, hindering their overall effectiveness.

To address these critical limitations, DARPA is actively seeking innovative technologies and solutions that can:

  1. Build or Repair Infrastructure: Create systems capable of repairing damaged infrastructure, such as addressing multiple blast craters simultaneously with minimal human oversight.
  2. Decrease Operator-to-Robot Ratio: Develop technologies that significantly reduce the number of human operators required for UxS response operations, particularly in scenarios involving the neutralization of explosive threats in high-stress environments.
  3. Reduce Manpower Requirements: Streamline the process of unloading cargo at expeditionary bases, thereby reducing the physical burdens on personnel.

Crafting Robust Solutions

Proposals submitted to DARPA should identify a specific critical limitation in scalable autonomy and present a comprehensive system or component designed to overcome this obstacle. Successful proposals must also establish metrics for comparing the proposed concept with the existing state of the art. The ultimate goal is to create unclassified prototypes ready for field testing by the end of Phase II. It is essential to note that submissions focused solely on software or hardware without significant autonomy, as well as those related to kinetic effects or intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance, will not be considered.

The systems developed under this initiative must be robust and maximize operational availability. To this end, DARPA seeks solutions that are not only technologically advanced but also financially viable for large-scale adoption across the DoD and industry.

The Path to Implementation

The journey from concept to implementation in this initiative involves several key phases:

Phase I: Feasibility Study

During Phase I, companies are tasked with conducting a feasibility study that demonstrates their competitive advantage in the technology landscape. This study must outline the firm’s technology at both the component and system levels, provide supporting literature for technical feasibility, and present a market strategy for commercial applications. Importantly, proposers must identify quarterly technical milestones to demonstrate progress to DARPA and create a roadmap showcasing the technology’s scientific and engineering viability.

Phase II: Prototyping

In Phase II, selected companies will produce prototype solutions that enable mission-critical tasks. These prototypes will undergo evaluation by DoD units, and companies will also present a technology transition and commercialization plan for both DoD and commercial markets.

Phase III: Dual-Use Applications

The applications of the components and systems developed in this initiative extend beyond the realm of defense. Industries such as energy and construction, which leverage Unmanned Systems (UxS) in surveying and infrastructure development tasks, can also benefit from these technologies. DARPA envisions a transition of these solutions to provide expanded mission capabilities for a wide range of government and civilian users, opening up new avenues for innovation and applications.


The Autonomous Systems at Scale initiative under the DARPA SBIR program represents a pivotal moment in the evolution of military technology. By developing autonomous solutions that can handle well-defined tasks efficiently and safely, we are not only reducing risks to service members but also transforming the way military operations are conducted. As we embark on this journey, the possibilities for innovation and collaboration are boundless, and the impact on defense and civilian sectors alike promises to be profound.

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