In recent years, the space industry has witnessed a revolution in satellite technology with the advent of small satellites, namely microsatellites and nanosatellites. These miniature spacecraft, weighing anywhere from a few kilograms to a few hundred kilograms, have opened up new possibilities for space missions, offering cost-effective solutions, rapid deployment, and increased accessibility. In this article, we will delve into the challenges and technologies associated with microsatellite and nanosatellite missions and explore how these small satellites are making a big impact in various fields.
Traditionally, space technology has tended to become increasingly large and sophisticated, accessible only to the space agencies of the world’s most developed countries or at the service of major corporations.
New Space is based on a philosophy of creating less expensive satellites in shorter periods of time, thanks to the falling costs and miniaturisation of electronic parts. Nanosatellites and microsatellites refer to miniaturized satellites in terms of size and weight, in the range of 1-10 Kg and 10-100 kg, respectively. These are the fastest growing segments in the satellite industry. With nanosatellites, the benefits that were traditionally reserved exclusively for large companies or space agencies with vast financial resources have been democratised and are now accessible to companies of all types and sizes. ‘CubeSat’ is one of the most popular types of miniaturized satellites.
Small spacecraft, including nanosatellites, microsatellites, and small satellites (smallsats), are an attractive alternative to traditional, larger spacecraft due to reduced development costs, decreased launch costs, and increased launch opportunities. CubeSats reduce launch costs in two fundamental ways.
CubeSats were made possible by the ongoing miniaturization of electronics, which allows instruments such as cameras to ride into orbit at a fraction of the size of what was required at the beginning of the space age in the 1960s. They don’t weigh that much, which means a rocket doesn’t need a lot of fuel to lift them. In most cases, they also share a rocket with a larger satellite, making it possible to get to space on the coattails of the heavier payload.
One of the major advantages of nano and microsatellites is reduced delay and low cost of building and operating these satellites. CubeSat standardization opens up the possibility of using commercial electronic parts and the choice of numerous technology suppliers, thereby considerably cutting the costs of CubeSat engineering and development projects in comparison with other types of satellites.
This means strongly reducing spacecraft lifecycle costs and lead time, without reducing (and most likely increasing) performance. Modern small satellites has not only small size, light weight, high technology, good performance, high reliability, short development cycle, but also adaptability, ease of management, low risk, and thus has a broad development and application prospects. It can be used as a single satellite, but also satellites constellation.
In turn, this would allow the full potential of space to be exploited and space-based systems to be competitive with ground-based systems that provide similar services.
The trend toward small-sized spacecraft continues in government applications and is even increasing in commercial space endeavors that are funded by venture capital. Nanosatellites and microsatellites find application in scientific research, communication, navigation and mapping, power, reconnaissance, and others including Earth observation, biological experiments, and remote sensing. There is also growing utilization of miniaturized satellites for military and defense applications. Defense organizations have been launching communication nanosatellites and microsatellites to provide communication signals to soldiers stationed in remote locations or in dense forests. The military needs more data bandwidth and reliable communications infrastructure for its UAVs, which can be fulfilled using constellations of nano and microsatellites.
Challenges in Size and Budget:
Building small, lightweight, and intelligent spacecraft poses significant challenges. CubeSats are based on standard unit sizes, such as 1U, which measures 10x10x10 centimeters and has a mass between 1 and 1.33 kg. After the first few years, this modular unit was multiplied and larger nanosatellites are now common (1.5U, 2U, 3U or 6U). Today, new configurations are under development.
While larger nanosatellites have emerged, maintaining stringent monetary and mass/power/volume budgets remains critical. The limited size of small spacecraft reduces payload capacity, propulsion capabilities, and power availability, necessitating breakthroughs in miniaturized components.
For a deeper understanding of Microsatellite technology please visit: Microsatellites, Cubesats and Nanosatellite Technology: Advancements, Applications and Market Trends
Payload Capabilities and Constraints:
The payload of a satellite is the primary reason for its launch. Maximizing the ratio of payload mass to total satellite mass (PM/TSM) is crucial for efficient mission execution. With advancements in microsatellite technology, PM/TSM ratios of 10-25% are achievable. However, the reduced physical size of small spacecraft limits the number and size of payloads they can host, as well as their propulsion and power capabilities.
The biggest challenge is miniaturization, virtually every spacecraft subsystem needs breakthroughs in fully functional miniaturized components in order to make the intelligent nanosatellite constellation feasible. Overcoming these constraints requires the development of more capable, yet affordable, payloads.
Radiation susceptibility is a significant concern for small spacecraft and their electronic components. The miniaturization of electronics makes them more vulnerable to the effects of radiation in space environments. Compared to larger spacecraft, small satellites have limited capacity to shield their electronics from radiation, increasing the risk of damage or malfunction.
The small size of these satellites also imposes limitations on the payloads they can carry. With limited space and weight capacity, small satellites are unable to accommodate large shielding systems or additional protective measures against radiation. This makes them more susceptible to radiation-induced anomalies, such as single-event effects (SEEs) and total ionizing dose (TID) effects.
Furthermore, the relatively low cost associated with small satellites often results in shorter mission lifetimes. These satellites are designed to operate for a few weeks, months, or years before reaching the end of their operational lifespan. This limited lifespan is partly due to the increased risk of radiation-induced damage over extended periods of time, as well as other factors such as orbital decay in the case of low Earth orbit satellites.
In summary, radiation susceptibility is a significant challenge for small satellites due to the sensitivity of their miniaturized electronics, limited capacity for shielding, and relatively short operational lifetimes. Addressing these challenges is crucial to ensure the reliability and longevity of small spacecraft missions in the harsh radiation environment of space.
Highly-autonomous satellites are designed to operate with minimum reliance on external sources, enabling them to accomplish their missions without constant contact with ground stations. Since microsatellites are typically placed in low Earth orbits (LEOs), where communication gaps are common, incorporating in-orbit autonomy is essential. Accommodating onboard autonomy is a complex systems engineering task, constrained by the mass, power, and budget limitations of microsatellite missions. It empowers microsatellites to perform self-management and mission-specific tasks efficiently during periods without ground station visibility.
Attitude Knowledge and Control:
The attitude determination and control system of a satellite deal with maintaining its position and orientation in space. This is crucial for stability, imaging, and communications purposes. Achieving accurate and precise attitude control is particularly challenging for small satellites due to limited resources. However, advancements in microsatellite technology have made it possible to implement three-axis control systems with accuracies better than 1 degree, all within the stringent mass, power, and volume budgets of microsatellites. This breakthrough has enhanced the profitability and effectiveness of microsatellite missions.
Traditionally, attitude maneuverability, the ability of a satellite to align itself into a desired orientation, has been challenging and limited to large satellites. However, microsatellites have demonstrated their capability to perform sophisticated attitude maneuvers, enabling them to respond rapidly to user requests. Microsatellites can now be scheduled to point in specific directions when passing over desired locations, providing operators with greater flexibility and responsiveness. This advancement has expanded the range of missions that microsatellites can undertake effectively.
The purpose of a telecommunication subsystem for a microsatellite is to serve as a communication link between the microsatellite and the ground station. Nanosatellites, a category of small satellites, are equipped with data-intensive sensors that require high data-rate downlink capacity and power efficiency. Applications of nanosatellites include data-intensive sensors like hyperspectral video or imagers, which require higher data-rate downlink capacity and greater power efficiency.
However, the limited size, weight, and power (SWaP) of nanosatellites make it challenging to incorporate high-gain RF antennas for efficient ground transmission. To overcome this, high-data-rate nanosatellite missions often require large dish diameters ranging from 5 m to 20 m at ground stations. Additionally, signal processing in the RF chain is necessary to address signal issues and attenuation.
Currently, CubeSats rely completely on radiofrequency communications using amateur low-speed UHF systems (with omnidirectional dipole antennas) due to its availability and lower cost, with rates in the order of kbit/s or tens of kbit/s from Low-Earth Orbit (LEO). As a result, the potential of most CubeSat missions is being limited by their communication capabilities, therefore there is a tendency to move to higher frequencies, especially to X-band, where more bandwidth is available, as an alternative to achieve higher data rates with smaller ground antennas.
Ensuring real-time transmission of converted signal data over the network stack is crucial for analyzing signal quality and errors. Obtaining RF licenses with sufficient bandwidth for nanosatellite missions can be difficult, leading to the need for managing multiple narrow-bandwidth license requests. In this context, nanosatellites prefer software-defined radios (SDRs) over older, less flexible RF communication systems.
Collaborative and Swarm Missions:
Small spacecraft are most commonly used in low Earth orbit, limiting the number of observation opportunities for a particular area of the Earth or space and the number of ground station downlink opportunities for stored data. These constraints affect the complexity and types of applications that small spacecraft can serve. Using multiple spacecraft that work together can overcome many of these limitations and expand the utility of small spacecraft. Two concepts for cooperative groups of spacecraft are constellations and clusters.
By deploying multiple small satellites in constellations or formation flying configurations, these missions can achieve higher resolution, improved data fusion, and comprehensive coverage. Collaborative efforts enable distributed sensing and enhanced capabilities for applications such as global navigation, weather monitoring, and communication networks.
Satellite constellations and clusters offer enhanced capabilities for small spacecraft missions, overcoming limitations in observation and communication. These formations involve deploying multiple satellites that work together to improve data collection, coverage, and communication capabilities. However, effective data communication poses a key challenge for these small spacecraft formations.
One challenge is accommodating varying numbers of users, ensuring a consistent quality of service for different applications. As the number of users increases, the demand for communication services grows, requiring efficient handling of user densities. Bandwidth limitations also need to be addressed to transmit large volumes of data and optimize efficiency within constellations and clusters.
Inter-satellite communication is crucial for seamless collaboration within these formations. Reliable communication links between spacecraft enable data sharing, coordinated operations, and synchronized observations. Developing robust communication protocols and networking solutions tailored to the unique requirements of small satellites is essential.
Overcoming these communication challenges will unlock the potential of satellite constellations and clusters, enabling them to serve a wide range of applications such as Earth observation, remote sensing, and global connectivity. The continued advancement of communication technologies holds the promise of revolutionizing the space industry through collaborative satellite missions.
Technological advancements in micro and nanosatellites have led to the development of integrated design approaches and miniaturization technologies. These innovations address various aspects of micro-nano satellite systems and enable their efficient operation.
Micro-nano satellite platform can be divided by function: on-board computer, attitude and orbit control, monitoring and control, thermal control, promotion, construction and power management seven aspects.
One area of focus is miniaturization technology, which involves packaging electronics from the bare die level to the systems level. The objective is to achieve smaller, lighter, and more reliable space electronics while considering cost, performance, and schedule requirements.
Another important aspect is the miniaturization of sensors and actuators. Due to the size and weight limitations of micro and nanosatellites, reducing power consumption and overall mass becomes crucial. This involves developing compact and lightweight components without compromising functionality.
Furthermore, advancements in resolution capabilities have been achieved in remote sensing applications. Microsatellites in low Earth orbit (LEO) have become prominent in remote sensing missions due to their affordability and capabilities. Improvements in spatial resolution, such as achieving under 1-meter resolution in radar imagery, have expanded the applications of microsatellites in sectors like emergency response and maritime security.
Navigation systems have also benefited from micro and nanosatellite technologies. MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) technology has facilitated the optimization of navigation sensors, enabling smaller size and reduced power consumption. This paves the way for multi-system integration and lays the foundation for future advancements.
Power systems and centralized computer units play crucial roles in microsatellites. Designing fault-tolerant architectures and autonomous reconfiguration capabilities minimize the need for ground station intervention. Centralized data processing and management reduce system complexity and increase reliability.
Moreover, the implementation of system-on-chip (SoC) flight control designs enables high-performance computing, flexible programming capabilities, and navigation functionalities in small satellite missions.
In summary, various technologies and approaches, including miniaturization, improved resolution, optimized navigation systems, efficient power management, and centralized data processing, are advancing the capabilities and performance of micro and nanosatellites. These advancements open up new opportunities and applications for small spacecraft in the rapidly evolving space industry.
Resolution (in remote-sensing systems)
Resolution plays a crucial role in remote sensing systems, particularly in the context of microsatellites operating in low Earth orbit (LEO). LEO microsatellites have gained significant prominence due to their lower launch costs and increased accessibility. However, their limited capabilities have necessitated a focus on achieving higher spatial resolution, also known as Ground Sample Distance (GSD).
One remarkable example of pushing the boundaries of resolution is ICEYE, a small satellite synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) technology company. ICEYE has achieved better than 1-meter resolution imagery from their lightweight SAR satellites, which weigh less than 220 pounds. This breakthrough was made possible through ICEYE’s Spotlight imaging mode, where the satellite concentrates its energy on a smaller area for an extended duration, resulting in higher data collection. By processing this wealth of detailed information, ICEYE can generate highly accurate imagery that distinguishes small objects and classifies larger ones, such as vessels.
The advancements in resolution offered by ICEYE’s SAR satellites have wide-ranging applications in various sectors, including emergency response, finance, civil government, and maritime security. The ability to capture very high-resolution radar satellite images empowers organizations to address challenges more effectively, enabling better decision-making and resource allocation.
In summary, the pursuit of higher resolution in remote-sensing systems has been a key focus for LEO microsatellites. ICEYE’s achievement of under 1-meter resolution radar imagery demonstrates the potential for microsatellites to deliver detailed and accurate data. This breakthrough opens up opportunities for improved situational awareness, asset monitoring, and risk management across a range of industries and applications.
The optimization of navigation system.
The optimization of navigation systems in micro-nano satellites is being revolutionized by the application of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. MEMS technology has proven highly effective in enhancing the performance of navigation guidance sensors, such as gyroscopes and accelerometers. Through miniaturization, the size of MEMS gyroscopes has been reduced to a few centimeters, and the development of monolithic integrated three-axis gyroscopes is underway. These advancements not only contribute to the significant reduction in the size of satellite navigation sensors but also result in lower power consumption.
By leveraging MEMS technology, micro-nano satellites can replace bulky machinery and equipment with compact and highly efficient MEMS systems for environmental and location sensing. This substitution opens up new possibilities for the design of micro-nano satellites, as they can incorporate local MEMS devices that lay the foundation for future multi-system integration. With MEMS-based navigation systems, micro-nano satellites can achieve improved accuracy and performance while optimizing the utilization of limited onboard space and power resources.
The integration of MEMS technology into navigation systems offers numerous benefits for micro-nano satellites. The reduced size and power consumption of MEMS gyroscopes enable more efficient satellite designs and the allocation of resources to other critical functionalities. Moreover, the precise environmental and location sensing capabilities of MEMS systems enhance the satellite’s ability to navigate and orient itself in space.
In conclusion, the optimization of navigation systems in micro-nano satellites is being propelled forward by the application of MEMS technology. The miniaturization and integration of gyroscopes and accelerometers through MEMS have led to significant advancements in size reduction and power efficiency. The adoption of MEMS devices in satellite designs paves the way for future multi-system integration and empowers micro-nano satellites to achieve higher performance and reliability in their navigation capabilities.
Microsat Power Systems and the IPS
Centralized computer unit.
A centralized computer unit plays a crucial role in micro-nano and small satellites by consolidating computing resources and enabling centralized management of various functions such as attitude control, orbit control, on-board management, and ambient temperature monitoring. This centralized data processing mode utilizes a single high-performance computing unit to handle these tasks effectively. Typically, a processor with a computing power of 100 million instructions per second (MIPS) and more than 1 megabyte of memory is sufficient to meet the data processing requirements of these satellites. By centralizing data management, the system’s complexity is reduced, and redundant design elements enhance overall system reliability.
The design and implementation of a System-on-Chip (SoPC) for flight control further enhances the capabilities of small satellites. This on-chip multi-system integration technology provides a single chip solution for control, data processing, and navigation, specifically tailored for small satellites and on-board flight control. The design objectives for such systems include a computing power of 100 MIPS, storage space exceeding 10 megabytes, programmable space, I2 bus compatibility, satellite navigation and inertial platform interfaces, and high-speed digital-to-analog conversion capabilities. To meet the requirements of flight control, these systems must possess high-performance computing power, flexible software and hardware programming capabilities, as well as precise navigation and positioning capabilities.
In summary, the centralized computer unit in micro-nano and small satellites enables the consolidation and centralized management of computing resources for various functions. This approach improves system efficiency and reliability. Additionally, the implementation of SoPC technology enhances flight control capabilities by integrating control, data processing, and navigation functions into a single chip. These advancements in computing power and integration contribute to the success of small satellites in achieving their objectives.
Antennas are key components that enable small satellites to receive and transmit electromagnetic signals. Advanced antenna technologies play a crucial role in optimizing the performance of small satellites. Due to the limited volume onboard these satellites, antenna designs need to be carefully optimized for various wireless systems such as telemetry, tracking, data downlink, navigation, communications, and sensing.
There are several types of antennas suitable for CubeSat applications, including patch antennas, slot antennas, dipole and monopole antennas, reflector antennas, helical antennas, and metasurface antennas, operating across different frequency bands. These antennas enable efficient communication and data transfer for a wide range of applications.
Communications using Software Defined Radio (SDR)
The use of Software Defined Radio (SDR) technology in microsatellites allows for flexible and cost-effective communication systems. SDR leverages digital signal processing and software algorithms to handle filtering, modulation, demodulation, and other tasks, reducing the need for extensive analog components. This enables the incorporation of new telecommunication technologies and the addition of advanced features without major hardware changes, enhancing the capabilities of communication systems onboard microsatellites. This allows Software to be reused across products, reducing software/ hardware costs dramatically.
Optical Communication on CubeSats
Furthermore, optical communication is emerging as a promising solution for CubeSats, particularly in terms of achieving higher data rates and bandwidth. By utilizing lasers and space optical communication, CubeSats can transmit data with significantly greater capacity while maintaining compact size, low weight, and low power consumption. Although challenges exist, such as generating sufficient optical power, including secondary batteries in the power management system can help mitigate these limitations and enable the potential of CubeSat lasercom systems.
In summary, advanced antenna technologies, including optimized designs, SDR implementation, and optical communication, are advancing the capabilities of small satellites. These technologies enable efficient communication, higher data rates, and enhanced bandwidth, unlocking new possibilities for microsatellite missions in various fields.
FPGA’s & ASICS
FPGA’s and ASICs (Application-Specific Integrated Circuits) play a crucial role in the design and development of micro-nano and small satellites. These chip-level technologies enable the integration of multiple functions onto a reduced number of ICs, leading to a decrease in parts count, improved reliability, and reduced weight and volume of the satellite’s electronics.
By utilizing FPGA’s and ASICs, designers can create custom or semi-custom integrated circuits tailored to the specific requirements of the satellite. These circuits can incorporate various functionalities, such as data processing, control systems, communication interfaces, and sensor interfaces, onto a single chip or a small number of chips. This integration not only simplifies the overall system architecture but also optimizes performance and power efficiency.
When designing application-specific ICs, factors like cost, schedule, and radiation tolerance are of paramount importance. Radiation tolerance is particularly critical for space applications due to the presence of harsh radiation environments. Designers need to ensure that the selected IC foundry line and the implemented design can withstand and mitigate the effects of radiation, ensuring the reliability and longevity of the satellite’s electronics.
Furthermore, FPGA’s offer the advantage of programmability, allowing for flexibility in modifying the chip’s functionality and behavior after deployment. This feature is valuable for rapid prototyping, testing, and iterative development of satellite systems.
In summary, FPGA’s and ASICs provide powerful tools for integrating multiple functions onto a reduced number of ICs in micro-nano and small satellites. These technologies improve reliability, reduce weight and volume, and offer flexibility in design and development. Radiation tolerance is a crucial consideration, and careful selection of the IC foundry line is necessary to ensure the resilience of the implemented design in harsh space environments.
Multi-system assembly techniques
Multi-system assembly techniques, combined with advanced packaging technologies, play a crucial role in achieving efficient integration of diverse electronic systems in micro-nano satellites. These techniques involve the integration of sensor units, data processing units, and FPGAs using 3D packaging technology, enabling the assembly of multiple electronic chips into a single package. This approach effectively minimizes the size and weight of micro-nano satellites while facilitating interconnectivity and communication between different systems.
To further enhance multi-system assembly, the utilization of micro-nano assembly technology and System in Package (SiP) technology can be explored. These techniques enable the compact integration of multiple systems, ensuring efficient communication and interconnectivity between them.
Integrated electronics and Architecture
Another important aspect is the integration of electronics and architecture. By adopting highly integrated electronics technologies and consolidating functions traditionally implemented in separate elements, the Integrated Power System (IPS) serves as a prime example. The IPS combines energy storage, solar array electronics, and charge control electronics into a single structural element, resulting in a compact electronics architecture. This design approach minimizes the number of components on the boards and enables integration in a compact format.
At the component level, selecting the smallest outline packaged parts, such as chip-scale packaging, can significantly reduce the size and weight of the electronics. Mounting the IC die itself, without the housing package, further optimizes the area required for electronics implementation.
To achieve efficient system integration and miniaturization, an Integrated Electronics Module (IEM) approach can be employed. This approach involves packaging onboard electronics onto integrated boards connected in a backplane fashion within a single housing. By utilizing standardized microsatellite platforms, system integration becomes streamlined and miniaturization is facilitated.
Low power electronics
Furthermore, emphasizing low-power electronics design is crucial for power savings. Power management techniques and low supply voltages should be considered during the design phase. Ongoing research on ultra-low power CMOS ICs suitable for space applications shows promise and can significantly reduce power dissipation in digital electronics. Implementing ultra-low voltage IC technology has the potential to yield substantial power savings, primarily from reducing the power consumption of digital electronics.
In summary, enhancing multi-system assembly techniques through advanced packaging technologies, integrated electronics and architecture, and low-power electronics design can lead to significant improvements in the size, weight, and power efficiency of micro-nano satellites. These advancements contribute to the overall optimization and performance of the satellite systems.
Microsatellites and nanosatellites are overcoming challenges and making a significant impact in the space industry. Despite their size limitations, advancements in technology, payload capabilities, and launch opportunities have made small satellites cost-effective and accessible. The ongoing development of miniaturized components, efficient power management systems, advanced communication networks, and collaborative mission strategies will further enhance the potential of small satellites. As a result, we can expect these small spacecraft to play an increasingly significant role in Earth observation, telecommunications, scientific research, and various other fields, driving innovation and expanding our understanding of the universe.