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Revolutionizing Wireless Fronthaul in Industrial Environments: Harnessing Terahertz Frequencies


The relentless growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) has driven the demand for high-speed, reliable, and low-latency wireless connectivity in indoor industrial environments.  Cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (CF-mMIMO) networks have emerged as a promising solution to meet these demands, offering enhanced network capacity and coverage. However, CF-mMIMO networks typically use a wired fronthaul to connect the central processing unit (CPU) to the access points (APs). This wired fronthaul can be a bottleneck, limiting the scalability and flexibility of the network. This article explores the transformative potential of employing THz frequencies for wireless fronthaul, shedding light on the advancements that could redefine connectivity in industrial settings.


State-of-the-art telecommunication technologies have been established for current applications in 5G, but with increasing demands of more users and devices, these systems demonstrate slower connections and costly energy consumption. These systems suffer from the self-interference problem that severely affects communication quality and efficiency. To deal with these challenges, a technique known as multicarrier-division duplex (MDD) has been recently proposed and studied, which allows a receiver in the network to be nearly free of self-interference in the digital domain by relying only on the fast Fourier transform (FFT) processing.

This project proposed a novel technology to optimise the assignment of subcarrier set and the number of access point clusters and improve the communication quality in different networks. The team tested their technology in a simulation based on a real-world industrial setting, finding that it out-performed existing technologies. A 10% power consumption reduction can be achieved, compared to other state of the art technologies.

Unleashing Terahertz Frequencies:

Terahertz (THz) frequencies, located between microwave and infrared frequencies, offer a plethora of advantages for wireless fronthaul in indoor industrial CF-mMIMO networks:

  1. Unprecedented Bandwidth: THz frequencies provide an abundance of untapped bandwidth, enabling the transmission of massive amounts of data at ultra-high speeds.

  2. Reduced Interference: THz frequencies are less susceptible to interference from other wireless signals, ensuring reliable communication and minimizing latency.

  3. Directional Transmission: THz signals can be focused more precisely, reducing energy consumption and improving network efficiency.

In the pursuit of enhancing connectivity within indoor industrial environments, researchers are investigating the application of THz frequencies to create a robust and efficient wireless fronthaul system.

The CF-mMIMO Paradigm:

Cell-Free Massive MIMO (CF-mMIMO) networks represent a paradigm shift in wireless communication. Unlike traditional cellular networks with fixed base stations, CF-mMIMO leverages a distributed antenna system, creating a dynamic and flexible network architecture. However, the reliance on wired fronthaul connections poses challenges, limiting the scalability and adaptability of these networks.

MDD-Enabled THz Fronthaul: A Breakthrough Solution

To harness the potential of THz frequencies, researchers have proposed multicarrier-division duplex (MDD)-enabled THz fronthaul schemes. MDD technology effectively separates uplink and downlink transmissions on the same THz frequency band, doubling the spectral efficiency and maximizing network capacity.

This innovative approach envisions two layers of fronthaul links operating on mutually orthogonal subcarrier sets in the THz band, complemented by access links in the sub-6G band. This enables the elimination of wired fronthaul connections, paving the way for truly wireless and scalable CF-mMIMO networks.

Optimization Challenge

Implementing this novel THz fronthaul scheme introduces a complex optimization challenge involving AP clustering, device selection, subcarrier set assignment, and resource allocation at both the central processing unit (CPU) and access points (APs). Researchers address this challenge by employing low-complexity yet efficient heuristic methods, iteratively optimizing subcarrier sets and the number of AP clusters.

  1. Heuristic Methods: Initially, they relax the binary variables using low-complexity heuristic methods.

  2. Iterative Optimization: They then perform iterative optimization of subcarrier assignment and AP cluster size.

Tailored Frame Structures for Enhanced Performance

Simulation results highlight the efficacy of the proposed dynamic AP clustering approach, showcasing its adaptability to networks of varying sizes. The MDD frame structure, featuring three parallel data streams, demonstrates superior performance compared to traditional Time-Division Duplexing (TDD) in two-tier fronthaul networks.

To further enhance the performance of MDD-enabled THz fronthaul schemes, researchers have designed advanced MDD frame structures. These structures effectively utilize the available THz bandwidth, enabling efficient transmission of multiple data streams and maximizing network throughput. Moreover, the impact of THz bandwidth on system performance underscores the potential of fully-wireless THz fronthaul schemes, offering performance comparable to fiber-optic-based systems.

Real-world Applications:

The real-world applicability of the THz-enabled fronthaul scheme is validated through realistic ray-tracing simulations. By offering a scalable, efficient, and fully-wireless solution, this research paves the way for the deployment of CF-mMIMO networks in industrial environments, where connectivity demands are dynamic and diverse.

Lead Principal Investigator Professor Huiyu Zhou from the University of Leicester School of Computing and Mathematical Sciences said: “With our proposed technology, 5G/6G systems require less energy consumption, have faster device selection and less resource allocation. Users may feel their mobile communication is quicker, wider and with reduced power demands.


The utilization of THz frequencies for wireless fronthaul in indoor industrial CF-mMIMO networks represents a transformative step forward in wireless communication technology. MDD-enabled THz fronthaul schemes have the potential to revolutionize the way we design and deploy indoor industrial wireless networks, enabling seamless connectivity, enhanced performance, and unparalleled scalability. As THz technology continues to mature, we can expect to witness even more innovative and groundbreaking applications of this revolutionary technology.


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