In Newton’s law of universal gravitation, gravity was an external force transmitted by unknown means. In the 20th century, Newton’s model was replaced by general relativity where gravity is not a force but the result of the geometry of spacetime. Under general relativity, gravity is the result of following spatial geometry (change in the normal shape of space) caused by local mass-energy. This theory holds that it is the altered shape of space, deformed by massive objects, that causes gravity, which is actually a property of deformed space rather than being a true force. Although the equations cannot normally produce a “negative geometry”, it is possible to do so by using “negative mass”. The same equations do not, of themselves, rule out the existence of negative mass.
Both general relativity and Newtonian gravity appear to predict that negative mass would produce a repulsive gravitational field. In particular, Sir Hermann Bondi proposed in 1957 that negative gravitational mass, combined with negative inertial mass, would comply with the strong equivalence principle of general relativity theory and the Newtonian laws of conservation of linear momentum and energy. Bondi’s proof yielded singularity-free solutions for the relativity equations. In July 1988, Robert L. Forward presented a paper at the AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE 24th Joint Propulsion Conference that proposed a Bondi negative gravitational mass propulsion system.
The laws of nature are universally applicable, Every particle obeys the same rules, experiences the same forces, and sees the same fundamental constants, no matter where or when they exist.
In practice, some things are notoriously difficult to measure. Despite our best efforts, though, we have never measured the gravitational acceleration of antimatter. There are two entirely different ways of thinking about mass. On the one hand, there’s the mass that accelerates when you apply a force to it: the m in Newton’s famous equation, F = ma. This is the same as the m in Einstein’s E = mc2, which tells you how much energy you need to create a particle (or antiparticle) and how much energy you get when you annihilate it away.
Anti-gravity (also known as non-gravitational field) is a hypothetical phenomenon of creating a place or object that is free from the force of gravity. It does not refer to the lack of weight under gravity experienced in free fall or orbit, or to balancing the force of gravity with some other force, such as electromagnetism or aerodynamic lift. “Anti-gravity” is often used to refer to devices that look as if they reverse gravity even though they operate through other means, such as lifters, which fly in the air by moving air with electromagnetic fields.
Under general relativity, anti-gravity is impossible except under contrived circumstances. American interest in “gravity control propulsion research” intensified during the early 1950s. The Americans have decided to look into the old science-fictional dream of gravity control, or “anti-gravity,” to investigate, both theoretically and (if possible) practically the fundamental nature of gravitational fields and their relationship to electromagnetic and other phenomena.
Literature from that period used the terms anti-gravity, anti-gravitation, baricentric, counterbary, electrogravitics (eGrav), G-projects, gravitics, gravity control, and gravity propulsion. Their publicized goals were to discover and develop technologies and theories for the manipulation of gravity or gravity-like fields for propulsion. Although general relativity theory appeared to prohibit anti-gravity propulsion, several programs were funded to develop it through gravitation research from 1955 to 1974.
Both the US and UK were reported to be publicly running research programs investigating anti-gravity under such headings as “propellantless propulsion”. The UK effort, run by BAe Systems, is called Project Greenglow , while in the US Boeing is running an anti-gravity program in its Phantom Works (Boeing’s equivalent of Lockheed’s legendary Skunk Works) in Seattle. The military wing of the hi-tech group BAe Systems, formerly British Aerospace, confirmed it in 2000 that has launched an anti-gravity research programme, as reported by BBC. NASA has been studying the manipulation of gravity for at least 10 years, as have nongovernment researchers. NASA began its work after a Russian physicist named Evgeny Podkletnov published an article in the peer-reviewed journal Physica C in 1992. In addition, NASA is looking into overlapping areas under the “Breakthrough Propulsion Physics” project .
If any of the work is successful, it could lead to dramatic developments in the way we travel – anti-gravity devices could make it much easier for aeroplanes, spacecraft and even the next generation of cars to get off the ground. There is informed speculation that it is already used in the American B2 bomber. In a March 1992 issue of Aviation Week & Space Technology, entitled “Black world engineers, scientists, encourage using highly classified technology for civil applications”. For the first time in open literature, this article explained how the B-2’s sharp leading edge is charged to “many millions of volts”, while the corresponding negative charge is blown out in the jets from the four engines. “Other writers have commented on the size of the B-2 wing and noted that its stealth depends on the huge black skin being made of RAM (radar-absorbent material). This, say the physicists, is ‘a high-k, high-density dielectric ceramic, capable of generating an enormous electrogravitic lift force when charged’.”
In 1996, the experiments of a Russian scientist were jeered at by the physics world. Writing in the journal Physica C, Dr Yevgeny Podkletnov claimed that a spinning, superconducting disc lost some of its weight. And, in an unpublished paper on the weak gravitation shielding properties of a superconductor, he argued that such a disc lost as much as 2% of its weight. However, most scientists believe that such anti-gravity research is fundamentally flawed. It goes against what we know about the physical Universe and is therefore impossible, they say. Mainstream scientists regard Electrogravity research with distaste, class it as a disreputable field of study, and group it with research into UFOs, bigfoot, unexplained phenomena, etc.