An “embedded system” is a word made by shortening “computer embedded system” meaning a system product or an electronic device into which a computer has been integrated. An embedded system is a controller that sits within a larger system in order to perform a dedicated function. An embedded system is typically some combination of hardware and software, either fixed in function or programmable. An embedded system could be designed to support a specific function, or specific functions with-in a larger system.
Depending on its required functionality the complexity of an embedded system can vary significantly ranging from a single microcontroller to a suite of chips with connected peripherals and networks such as multifunction I/O boards, rugged systems, single-board computers, and general-purpose graphical processing units.
Embedded systems form a ubiquitous, networked, computing substrate that underlies much of modern technological society.Embedded systems represent key enabling technology for the smart, connected products, machines, and systems that comprise the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and support the overall digital transformation of industry.
Such systems range from large supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems that manage physical infrastructure to medical devices such as pacemakers and insulin pumps, to computer peripherals such as printers and routers, to communication devices such as cell phones and radios, to vehicles such as airplanes and satellites. They range from portable devices such as digital watches and MP3 players, to large stationary installations like traffic lights, factory controllers, and largely complex systems like hybrid vehicles, MRI, and avionics.
Embedded systems are becoming an integral component of almost everything in our lives from digital consumer electronics include set-top boxes, DVDs, high definition TVs and digital cameras. Embedded systems in automobiles include motor control, cruise control, body safety, engine safety, robotics in an assembly line, car multimedia, car entertainment, E-com access, mobiles etc.
Embedded systems in telecommunications include networking, mobile computing, and wireless communications, etc. Embedded systems in smart cards include banking, telephone and security systems. Embedded systems in computer networking & peripherals include image processing, networking systems, printers, network cards, monitors and displays.
As the threat of Cyber Security is ever increasing, the Network security in embedded computing is getting more scrutiny these days. In a constantly evolving threat environment, where new attacks arrive virtually every day, system architects must design networks to be as secure as possible. That requires a constant review process to enable the necessary adaptation, modification, and updates to keep systems safe.
Embedded System Characteristics
Embedded systems are designed to do some specific task, rather than be a general-purpose computer for multiple tasks. Some also have real-time performance constraints that must be met, for reasons such as safety and usability; others may have low or no performance requirements, allowing the system hardware to be simplified to reduce costs.
Examples of properties of typical embedded computers when compared with general-purpose counterparts are low power consumption, small size, rugged operating ranges, and low per-unit cost. This comes at the price of limited processing resources, which make them significantly more difficult to program and to interact with.
Embedded devices can be roughly divided into a controller unit, a data processing unit, a storage unit, and a user interface unit. Modern embedded systems are typically based on microcontrollers, having moved away from simple microprocessors. The main difference is that microprocessors are made up of just a central processing unit, with additions like RAM and ROM being added externally. Microcontrollers, however, generally come with a fixed amount of built-in memory. As input and output of the device, it has a sensor input and control output such as a motor, and as a user interface, it is provided with a display unit (LCD) and a keyboard.
There are a number of types of embedded systems, such as stand-alone systems that don’t require a host – an example of this is video game consoles. Real-time embedded systems, which runs specific tasks in specific time frames. Network-embedded systems, which are connected to a network. And, mobile embedded systems, which can be found in portable devices, as the name suggests.
Depending on type of embedded system, complexity varies from low, with a single microcontroller chip, to very high with multiple units, peripherals and networks mounted inside a large chassis or enclosure. The device may be composed of the hardware structure of the printed circuit board with the use of semiconductor components such as ASIC, microcontroller and SoC.
Embedded devices are typically powered by software integrated with hardware such as systems on a chip (SoC), field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA), an integrated circuit (IC) designed to be programmed by an embedded developer for a specific function, and other firmware variations. This makes it difficult to separate software and hardware completely.
The application is implemented in software. This software was implemented in real-time OS which allows execution of more than one tasks and in real-time Linux environment where real time function was fine-tuned. An embedded system is a controller programmed and controlled by a real-time operating system (RTOS) with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
Since the embedded system is dedicated to specific tasks, design engineers can optimize it to reduce the size and cost of the product and increase the reliability and performance. Some embedded systems are mass-produced, benefiting from economies of scale.
Embedded systems often reside in machines that are expected to run continuously for years without errors, and in some cases recover by themselves if an error occurs. Embedded systems are required to be highly reliable, as any faults in the unit can have devastating consequences for the larger system. Not only will core functions cease to operate, but accessing and fixing an embedded system can be incredibly difficult depending on the device.
Therefore, the software is usually developed and tested more carefully than that for personal computers, and unreliable mechanical moving parts such as disk drives, switches or buttons are avoided. As with other software, embedded system designers use compilers, assemblers, and debuggers to develop embedded system software.
Military Embedded Systems
An embedded system plays significant roles in electronic equipment and devices used for military applications. Military embedded systems are used in various applications such as intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, communication equipment, command and control systems, computers, data storage devices, and data acquisition equipment, avionics and weapons system. Embedded Systems in satellites and missiles include defense, communication, and aerospace.
Military commanders need correct information to make the best decisions. Military intelligence is the practice of collecting useful information and analyzing that information to make the best decisions possible, and it’s something our military leaders do each day with the help of embedded systems. Military intelligence operatives collect intelligence by reading published journals and newspapers from foreign countries, and many countries have developed the capability to eavesdrop continuously on the entire radio spectrum, including broadcasts of radio and television programs, military traffic, telegraph and satellite traffic, and radar emissions. The United States military maintains a set of surveillance satellites capable of intercepting cell-phone and pager traffic.
Embedded systems are used to control and secure all of these devices, and the analysis of the massive volumes of data collected through these multiple channels is also handled by computers. Embedded systems allow these devices to operate smartly, facilitate remote control, and help to secure the devices from malicious software attacks.
Military UAVs can be deployed for a number of applications, including surveillance, intelligence gathering, delivery or transportation, and even combat. UAVs rely on secure and robust embedded systems with diverse capabilities, including secure data transmission and interoperability with ground control facilities and command centers.
Most conventional radar systems use fixed waveforms, making them easy to spot, learn about, and develop tactics against. However, the new, digitally programmable radars can generate never-before-seen waveforms, making them harder to defeat. Therefore, market players have the opportunity to develop agile and adaptive electronic warfare systems that can detect and counter advanced sensors. They can also develop electronic embedded systems for electronic warfare, which would be able to generate effective countermeasures against new, unknown, and adaptive radars on the battlefield in real-time.
Military requires rugged embedded systems are designed to perform reliably in harsh environments. A harsh environment presents inherent characteristics, such as extreme temperature & radiation levels, very low power, strict fault tolerance, and security constraints that challenge computer systems in their design and operation. Embedded systems in military applications have different requirements than the ones we use in civilian life – they must be highly secure to prevent reverse engineering or data interception, ruggedly designed to withstand harsh conditions in the battlefield, and implement components sourced from a trusted entity to prevent unauthorized software from being loaded onto the devices.
Embedded engineers are building systems for military applications that can deliver more power than ever before while withstanding a battery of harsh-environment tests, including extreme temperatures, impacts and vibrations, environmental exposures, and traditional hardware and software bench testing. As a result, military forces will be able to deploy even more powerful computers and embedded technology into the battlefield.
Embedded technology trends
The different kinds of processors used in an embedded system include Digital Signal Processor (DSP), microprocessor, RISC processor, microcontroller, ASSP processor, ASIP processor, and ARM processor. The user interface has evolved from simple power switch to display device and a keyboard. Now, it has grown up to become an advanced User Interface running on the SoC (System on Chip) by using Web environment. In recent years, the communication unit is often added to the foregoing units. Recently, because M2M (Machine to Machine) and IoT (Internet of Things) has become widely used, embedded system has become more often connected to the network.
While the physical size of the semiconductors, processors, and chips in embedded systems used in healthcare decreases, we’re also seeing an exponential increase in intelligence and functionality. This will enable a new generation of medical devices that will be able to function and intervene inside parts and organs of the human body in new and innovative ways. Tiny, but powerful devices will be able to monitor and determine the state and condition of multiple patients remotely through mobile devices connected to a network-based diagnostic center.
Technological advancements in network convergence
Due to technological advancements in embedded systems, it is now possible to use a singular network to carry data from multiple different systems over a single cable. In industries such as aerospace and military, ethernet for these systems can carry a wide range of data, that too from different data formats, as in a mix of voice, video, and data from various sensors and applications. Such a converged network is now replacing multiple single-purpose cables, with a provision of substantial SWaP (size, weight, and power) benefits and increased flexibility when adding new capabilities to a platform. In 2018, Curtiss-Wright Corporation introduced the latest generation OpenVPX GbE switch module, enabling a secure embedded converged network.
Blade server segment is expected to lead the military embedded systems market
Based on the server architecture, the military embedded systems market is projected to be led by the blade server segment from 2020 to 2025. This segment is expected to lead the market due to adoption of modern blade servers is growing, especially in network-centric military and avionics applications that require high-end computing with more I/O than is possible in standard servers and which have environmental requirements greater than a typical data center. Currently, there is an adoption of ATCA in network-centric defense and avionics applications such as radar/sonar systems, C4ISR, electronic warfare, naval tactical combat systems, C2, and communications and data center consolidation.
IoT and military IoT
The ongoing evolution of IIoT ecosystems and the steady progress of industrial automation to cyber-physical systems based on predictive and prescriptive analytics will eventually lead to autonomous and self-healing systems. ARC believes this will be a leading industry driver for embedded systems’ growth.
Additionally, the emerging generation of fully autonomous vehicles will require highly intelligent systems of systems; far more complex than the embedded systems in today’s vehicles. Computing systems in these vehicles will need to run multiple complex artificial intelligence (AI) software and systems for navigation, road and vehicular awareness, traffic patterns, pedestrian awareness, risk awareness and assessment, and so on. A new generation of processors is being developed for embedded systems to meet these computational and intelligence requirements.
Where conventional IoT gateways collect wireless sensor data and push it to the cloud, new smart IoT gateways and edge devices can support LANs, WANs, and general-purpose computing applications such as analytics or process control.
Many “traditional” embedded systems are, or were, disconnected systems that had no access to the Internet. With the big push for the IoT, many systems are now adding wireless or wired connectivity and streaming loads of data up to the cloud for processing and storage.
With the advent of IoT and the Industrial IoT (IIoT), embedded systems technology has become an enabler for the rapidly expanding world of smart and connected IoT ecosystems. IoT aaplications in Military or Military IoT (MIOT) collect huge amount of sensor data, they require large compute and storage resources are required to analyze, store and process the data. The current most common compute and storage resources are cloud based because the cloud offers massive data handling, scalability, and flexibility. However this may not be sufficient to meet the requirements of many MIOT applications, due to resource-constrained military networks, issues of latency, reliability and the security.
One area where AI is currently in use for the automotive customer is AI-based cloud services for predictive maintenance. Unlike conventional vehicles, connected vehicles can do much more than alert the driver with check-engine lights, and low-tire-pressure warnings. In many of the latest models, embedded AI algorithms monitor hundreds of sensors and can detect problems before they affect vehicle operation. By monitoring literally thousands of datapoints per second, AI can spot minute changes that could indicate component malfunction or failure.
Machine Learning and Autonomous systems
A major theme nowdays is about moving machine learning from the cloud to the edge. Machine learning has been a force to reckon with in the cloud and the ability to move machine learning to microcontroller-based systems is going to be a game changer.
Embedded intelligence in sensors and other metrology devices will allow data to be accessed, aggregated, and analyzed to power advanced analytics, enabling production systems and equipment to become part of the IIoT ecosystem and the digital twin. These are emerging as key enabling technologies to help optimize the asset lifecycle, particularly the operations and maintenance phase.
In automotive, embedded systems are utilized for infotainment, safety, driver awareness, maintenance, and overall system control of the vehicle. Expanding requirements for vehicles with advanced navigation, driver assist, and vehicle-to-street communications capabilities will only increase demand for embedded systems. Moreover, intelligent systems control is expanding with the emergence of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and electric vehicles (EV).
One of the major trends in the embedded sector is the emergence of intelligent edge devices that will help enable industrial production systems and process plants to become part of the digital enterprise. New techniques and emerging concepts like fog computing that can bring some compute and storage resources to the edge of the network instead of relying everything on the cloud.
Low Power Design
The growing popularity of embedded systems has made designers to push more and more features into embedded systems. This has caused the serious issue of large power dissipation in embedded systems. Energy constrained IoT systems, such as wearable devices, are already sensor rich and processing/computation constrained. Many portable and wearable devices are constrained by their energy-efficiency. Low power consumption has become an important design goal in many electronic systems.
Embedded designers have always had to contend with battery operated devices but with more IoT connected devices and sensor nodes, low power design is becoming a crucial design criteria that can dramatically affect the operating costs of a company. In order to increase battery life and to prevent overheating of devices researchers have been working on techniques for low power embedded systems.
Memory consumes most of the power needed in embedded system, so proper design and optimization of memory area will help in improving the power utilization of an embedded system without compromising on the performance.
While we often hear about how little current a microcontroller can draw in its deepest sleep mode and how energy-efficient parts are, designing a system that can reach those low power states can be challenging.
Developers working with battery operated devices need to stay up to date in several key areas: Wireless radio technologies, Hardware energy monitoring, Software energy consumption monitoring, Battery architectures and Power regulators
Security & Network Security
Traditionally, many of the hardware and hardware systems controlled by embedded software have not been easily interfaced with as they had little need to be exposed. Trends like machine-to-machine (M2M) communication, the Internet of Things and remotely-controlled industrial systems, however, have increased the number of connected devices and simultaneously made these devices targets. Today, however, we are seeing embedded networks connecting more devices and making more connection ports available, which makes trusted computing approaches imperative. Aboard commercial jetliners, for example, Ethernet might be available at every seat, and Wi-Fi might be provided for entertainment.
Such devices have been networked for a variety of reasons, including the ability to conveniently access diagnostic information, perform software updates, provide innovative features, lower costs, and improve ease of use. Researchers and hackers have shown that these kinds of networked embedded systems are vulnerable to remote attack, and such attacks can cause physical damage while hiding the effects from monitors.
As more devices connect to the embedded network, the more of the network needs protecting. Adding to the security challenge is the growing use of converged networks. Instead of one purpose network, today’s fast links can transport data from disparate systems over the same network. More systems sharing the network increases not only the potential for contention, but also the security challenge; more end points means more potential threats. We are seeing increased use of converged networking in military embedded systems.
Embedded system security is the reduction of vulnerabilities and protection against threats in software running on embedded devices. Like security in most IT fields, embedded system security involves a conscientious approach to hardware design and coding as well as added security software, an adherence to best practices and consultation with experts.
With many devices now connecting to the cloud, a major concern facing developers is how to secure their systems. Some technologies vary from using security processors, Arm TrustZone, and multi-core microcontrollers to partition secure and non-secure application code. While there are several hardware technology sets available, the available software solutions have been expanding at an extraordinary rate.
One tool for securing the network is white-listing, or limiting access to trusted devices. This could be as simple as enabling each port only to allow traffic from a known MAC address. While simple to implement, MAC addresses can be changed and spoofed. Trusting a device just because it has the right address turns out not to be a very robust security solution.
A more advanced technique to keep out unknown users involves IEEE 802.1x for port-based network access control (PNAC). 802.1x enables the network to authenticate a network endpoint using a cryptographic exchange. Instead of trusting a MAC address, trust is based on a certificate or other credentials. It implements port security via a feature on the network switch. 802.1x is a hybrid feature that needs support on the switch; that’s what controls turning the ports on and off). Still, it also requires clients, called “supplicants,” on the end points. That means that implementing a protection like 802.1x requires a whole system solution in which both the switches and the connected computers provide support.
Another challenge for providing network security on embedded systems involves upgrade cycles. Adding a security layer on which only one device is secured can introduce a weak link — unless all other devices on the network also have that layer of security. While hard-coding and 802.1x enable control over what devices can access the network, MACsec and IPsec tools use encryption to protect data on the move and prevent someone from snooping into that data. IPsec and MACsec help encrypt network data, and validate keys when establishing connections, but differ in how much data they encrypt. IPsec, for example, supports tunneling and transport modes that offer tradeoffs between overhead and the amount of encrypted data.
It’s important to select network equipment and end points that provide good performance because they encrypt network traffic at high rates. MACsec encryption is typical for hardware, and is built into the PHY devices that provide the link-layer connections. IPsec encryption typically happens in software, but can require hardware acceleration to keep up with the network.
Military embedded system security
Domestic issues such as CAN bus hacking have recently highlighted the growing importance of embedded systems security, but during military operations when real lives are at stake, the need for robust and reliable security measures for embedded systems is even greater. Embedded systems in military applications may be used to collect and transmit classified, mission-critical and top-secret data that should be protected from interception or attack at all costs.
Secure embedded devices are self-encrypting, with many using the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) 256-bit in XTS block cipher mode to codify and store data. A two-layer approach is also possible, with encryption on a solid-state drive acting as the first layer and file encryption acting as the outer layer. The use of multiple layers of encryption mitigates against the possibility that a single vulnerability or exploit could be used to penetrate both layers of encryption.
The need for secure real-time operating system software and embedded computing security software for use in military embedded systems continues to rise due to increasing security concerns and threats.
With increasing demands for security features, sensors, and processing power within embedded products that face size, weight, and power constraints, embedded engineers are creating innovative new methods of designing and building products for military applications. Many engineers are using ball grid arrays in place of traditional dual in-line or flat surface-mount packaging for their designs. Ball grid arrays provide more interconnection pins than the alternatives, facilitating 3D hardware-stacking that saves space while delivering the same speed and performance.
Military procurement departments will look to source products manufactured in secure, domestic environments to further mitigate the security risks associated with embedded systems in the battlefield.
Apart from IPsec and MACsec, there are encryption standards like transport layer security that work at the application level. These require less support from the network infrastructure, but consume more processor overhead and encrypt even less, because they exist at the highest layers of the network stack.
The military embedded systems market size is projected to grow from USD 1.4 billion in 2020 to USD 2.1 billion by 2025, at a CAGR of 8.3% from 2020 to 2025. Geopolitical rivalry and regional tension will demand more intelligence, surveillance, air defence and other military capabilities in these markets, driving growth in the embedded systems market. This is particularly the case in China, which is undergoing an intense build-up of its naval capabilities, whilst also attempting to act unilaterally in its island-building activities in the South China Sea. Similarly, India and its force-modernisation aspirations will involve the upgrading of primary military systems. Demand in emerging national markets Russia will be mixed, particularly as economic growth fails to accelerate and the effects of oil price restraint and Western sanctions bite into the latter resulting in a decline of sales of embedded systems.
Increasing demand for mobile command systems in the military & defense sector and the emergence of modern warfare systems are anticipated to significantly drive the global military embedded system market during the forecast period. The adoption of military embedded systems in command, control, communication, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) has increased in order to provide better protection to military forces. Also, the increasing demand for mobile command systems in war zone areas is likely to augment the global military embedded system market in the next few years.
Various improvements in integrated circuits and processor technologies have led to a decline in the overall hardware costs associated with embedded systems. Adoption of modern blade servers is growing, especially in network-centric military applications. Military electronic equipment has undergone tremendous advancements during the past few years. Some of the key requirements in electronic devices and systems used for military applications include high reliability, efficiency, and compact size. Due to these requirements, market players put enormous efforts into developing technologically advanced embedded systems.
The global military embedded system market is majorly classified as per platform, product, region, and application. As per the product, the market is divided into rugged systems, multifunction I/O boards, general-purpose graphic processing units (GPGPUs), and single-board computers, and Moreover, the multifunction I/O boards segment has been further-segmented into analog/digital I/O, networking, communication, and position/motion control. Based on application, the rugged embedded system market is subsegmented into military & defense, aerospace, and industrial. The industrial segment is further subsegmented into oil & gas, power distribution, mining, and others. The growing demand for rugged embedded systems in oil & gas and power distribution industries due to the growing need for rugged embedded systems that work in low energy as well as in harsh environments is driving the industrial subsegment. In addition, the industrial subsegment is expected to capture large market share in the global rugged embedded system market. Military and defense applications are expected to grow at a relatively higher CAGR during the forecast period.
the military embedded systems market has been segmented, by application (isr, communication, computer, cyber, combat, command & control), by component (processor, gpu, dps, ip-chip, others), by platform (land, air, naval), by architecture (hardware, software).
The rugged systems segment is sub-segregated into non-safety critical and safety critical. The single-board computers segment has been sub-categorized into Power PC, ARM, Intel (X86), and so on. As per the platform, the military embedded system market is classified into land, air, and naval. Additionally, as per the application, the market is segregated into surveillance and reconnaissance, command & control systems, intelligence, communication equipment, data storage, computers, and data acquisition. Geographically, the global military embedded system market is divided into Europe, North America, Asia Pacific, South America, and Middle East & Africa.
The global rugged embedded system market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 6.4% during the forecast period. The rugged embedded system market was valued at US$ 3,957.2 Mn in 2017, and is projected to grow significantly to reach US$ 6,883.8 Mn by 2026 due to an increasing demand for industrial computer systems for various industries such as oil & gas, power supply, and automation.
Rugged embedded systems are designed to perform reliably in harsh environments. A harsh environment presents inherent characteristics, such as extreme temperature & radiation levels, very low power, and strict fault tolerance and security constraints that challenge computer systems in their design and operation. In this report, PMR has segmented the global rugged embedded system market on the basis of type, application, and region. By type, the market is subsegmented into rugged computer systems, rugged storage systems, rugged network switches & routers, and rugged power supplies.
PMR repoort has segmented the global rugged embedded system market on the basis of type, application, and region. By type, the market is subsegmented into rugged computer systems, rugged storage systems, rugged network switches & routers, and rugged power supplies.
Rugged computer systems are in demand for ensuring optimum performance on the field and to operate under extreme conditions such as high-temperature, moisture, and pressure. Owing to this factor, the rugged computer systems sub segment is projected to register more than 55% of the market share at the end of 2018 in the global rugged embedded system market. Furthermore, the rugged computer system sub-segment is also expected to grow at a relatively higher CAGR during the forecast period in the rugged embedded system market and is expected to create an incremental opportunity of US$ 1,656.6 Mn between 2018 and 2026.
Apart from this, the rugged network switches and routers sub-segment is also expected to grow at a high CAGR during the forecast period as the demand for rugged network switches and routers is increasing due to growth in wireless and network-centric operations. Furthermore, this segment is expected to create an incremental opportunity of US$ 506.2 Mn during the forecast period.
Increasing modern electronic warfare & network-centric operations and increasing government expenditure in military operations are the primary factors fuelling the growth of the rugged embedded system market. Moreover, the increasing use of wireless and cloud computing technologies in the military have also led to an increase in the demand of rugged embedded systems. Furthermore, the increasing utility of multicore processors & wireless technologies and growth in the application of remotely operated vehicles are among factors driving the rugged embedded system market.
By application segment, the ISR segment is predictable to dominate the market. On the other hand, the hardware segment is projected to dominate the military embedded systems market by architecture.The general-purpose graphic processing units segment also leads a major share of the global military embedded system market and is expected to continue its dominance throughout the forecast period. Growing demand for mobile command systems in the military &defence sector is driving the market. However, the market faces the challenges managed by high costs of military embedded systems. Increasing demand for rugged embedded systems is projected to provide significant opportunities to the global military embedded system market in the near future
On the basis of geography, the rugged embedded system market is segmented into various regions, which include North America, Latin America, Europe, China, Japan, SEA & Others of APAC, and Middle East & Africa.
In terms of revenue, North America held a leading share of the global military embedded system market in 2017. The market in the region is anticipated to expand at a CAGR of 5.8% during the forecast period. Rising investments in artificial intelligence have led to rise in the adoption of military embedded systems in North America.
The North America rugged embedded system market is expected to dominate the global rugged embedded system market due to advancements in next-generation communication technologies in the region and high spending in military and aerospace by the U.S. The region has witnessed the widespread deployment of wireless and cloud computing technologies in the past couple of years. These factors are fuelling the growth of the rugged embedded system market in North America.
In terms of revenue, China holds a major share of the military embedded system market in Asia Pacific, followed by Japan. Moreover, in terms of revenue, the market in India is anticipated to expand at a significant pace during the forecast period.
Moreover, the rugged embedded system market has high potential in SEA & Others of APAC and China owing to an increase in investments in research & development for applications in military & defense and the onset of modern warfare systems in various countries of the region.
Some of the key players operating in the global military embedded system market are Altera, Atmel, ARM Limited, Advantech, Abaco Systems, Aitech Defense Systems, Inc., ADLINK Technology Inc., Aitech Defense Systems, Inc., Artesyn Embedded Technologies, Astronics Corporation, Curtiss-Wright Corporation, ECRIN Systems, Elma Electronic Inc., Excalibur Systems, Extreme Engineering Solutions, Fujitsu Limited,Intel Corporation, Inc., Infineon Technologies, Microchip, Kontron AG, Mercury Systems Inc., National Instruments, North Atlantic Industries Inc., SDK Embedded Systems Ltd., Renesas Electronics, STMicroelectronics, NXP(Freescale), Texas Instruments, IncTEK Microsystems, Inc., United Electronic Industries, and Xilinx.