A communication network in its simplest form is a set of equipment and facilities to provide service by transfer of information between users located at various locations.
Communication networks have evolved from telegraph networks that operated at tenths of bits per second to modern optical systems, which are operated at terabytes per second. Telegraph networks used message switching, store and forward, and connectionless communications. Telephone networks that used circuit switching was connection-oriented at communication. Computer networks support both packet switching and virtual circuit switching.
The field of networking and communication includes the analysis, design, implementation, and use of local, wide-area, and mobile networks that link computers together. The Internet itself is a network that makes it feasible for nearly all computers in the world to communicate. For example, the Internet provides communication services that enable computers to provide valuable services such as web, e-commerce, interactive games streaming, and far more.
A computer network links computers together via a combination of infrared light signals, radio wave transmissions, telephone lines, television cables, and satellite links. The challenge for computer scientists has been to develop protocols (standardized rules for the format and exchange of messages) that allow processes running on host computers to interpret the signals they receive and to engage in meaningful “conversations” in order to accomplish tasks on behalf of users. Network protocols also include flow control, which keeps a data sender from swamping a receiver with messages that it has no time to process or space to store, and error control, which involves transmission error detection and automatic resending of messages to correct such errors.
Networking engineering is a complicated task, which involves software, firmware, chip level engineering, hardware, and electric pulses. To ease network engineering, the whole networking concept is divided into multiple layers. Each layer is involved in some particular task and is independent of all other layers. But as a whole, almost all networking tasks depend on all of these layers. Layers share data between them and they depend on each other only to take input and send output.
The OSI reference model specifies network protocol standards in seven layers. Each layer is defined by the functions it relies upon from the layer below it and by the services it provides to the layer above it. At the bottom of the protocol lies the physical layer, containing rules for the transport of bits across a physical link. The data-link layer handles standard-sized “packets” of data and adds reliability in the form of error detection and flow control bits. The network and transport layers break messages into the standard-size packets and route them to their destinations.
The session layer supports interactions between applications on two communicating machines. For example, it provides a mechanism with which to insert checkpoints (saving the current status of a task) into a long file transfer so that, in case of a failure, only the data after the last checkpoint need to be retransmitted. The presentation layer is concerned with functions that encode data, so that heterogeneous systems may engage in meaningful communication. At the highest level are protocols that support specific applications. An example of such an application is the file transfer protocol (FTP), which governs the transfer of files from one host to another.
Networking Technology Trends
It is projected that soon we will have online more than 6 billion people, 30 billion devices and 50 billion machines. We are moving towards fully “connected world” that’s essentially everyone and everything connected, across every geography, supporting every application from consumer broadband, mobile gaming and connected cars to global business networks, ships, planes, soldiers, first responders and connected farms.
Optical networking is a means of communication that uses signals encoded in light to transmit information in various types of telecommunications networks. These include limited range local-area networks (LAN) or wide-area networks (WAN), which cross metropolitan and regional areas as well as long-distance national, international and transoceanic networks. It is a form of optical communication that relies on optical amplifiers, lasers or LEDs and wave division multiplexing (WDM) to transmit large quantities of data, generally across fiber-optic cables. Because it is capable of achieving extremely high bandwidth, it is an enabling technology for the Internet and telecommunication networks that transmit the vast majority of all human and machine-to-machine information.
With a significantly higher data rate and very short response times compared to previous standards, 5G will tackle the current requirements for communication in a fully connected society much more comprehensively than has been possible to date. Unlike previous standards, which can be seen as general-purpose technologies to which the different services were tailored and adjusted, the next 5G standard is expected to be able to provide tailored and optimized support for a plethora of services, traffic loads, and end-user communities.
In the future, 5G networks will represent the global telecommunication infrastructure of the digital economy, which should cover the whole world including inaccessible areas not covered by earlier terrestrial networks. However, there are several use cases where standard terrestrial coverage is either not present or possible, making satellite systems uniquely positioned to provide a solution to bridge this gap.
For areas with a very low-density population, unnecessary communication entities would result in a high average cost per person. And in mountainous regions, it is difﬁcult to deploy infrastructure. Nature disasters like earthquakes, tsunami, and forest ﬁre would destroy the communication entities and result in complete damage for backhaul networks. In this circumstance, it is vital to enhance the robustness of the whole system to make a quick response for rescue.
Satellite communication will play a significant role in 5G and beyond as a complementary solution for ubiquitous coverage, broadcast/multicast provision, aeronautical & maritime communications, emergency/disaster recovery, and remote rural area coverage.
Estimated to be more than 30% faster than Wi-Fi 5, Wi-Fi 6 can make a huge difference with huge improvements in speed and reduced latency in environments (stadiums, airports etc.) that have a higher density of devices. Wi Fi 6 infrastructure is ready to go however Wi Fi 6 capable devices such as computers and mobile phones manufacturers need to adopt new standards. Wi-Fi 6 can enable IoT devices to transfer data at a faster pace with reduced latency and response times. For example, in a manufacturing setup, data relayed by sensors can be captured and analyzed at a faster pace due to reduced data latency.
Complex network and business problems can be addressed in real time using AI and ML capabilities. Application of user cases ranging from small cities, manufacturing, security, and networking. ML can make predictions based on network data and AI can take intelligent actions based on those prophecies. Advanced analytics into automation systems will bring in self-operating networks.
usability and integrity of network is crucial to security. Effective network security manages network access effectively and stops a variety of threats entering or spreading within the network.
SD-WAN is a software-based approach to manage Wide Area networks (WANs). This technology lowers operational costs and improvement in resource usage in multisite deployments. Network administrator using this SD-WAN technology can use bandwidth more efficiently and help to ensure enhanced performance for business-critical applications without compromising data security and privacy.
SD concept in SD-WAN technologies separate the control plane from the data plane and centralize the control plane from which multiple devices are controlled. Control plane acts like a shared service which is accessible to all administrators within an organization or in a multi tenancy environment.
SD-WAN supports on premises data centres, Software-as-a-service (SaaS) and public cloud infrastructure-as-a-service (laaS) applications to optimize their performance. SD-WAN allows proper security for each user and devices irrespective of their physical location.
Network resources at the edge will increase substantially: Edge locations are in huge demand as applications demand faster response times and users expect lesser latency. An IDC report, ‘The Business Value of Edge in a Digital-First World,’ says that nearly 6 in 10 (59%) enterprises in Asia Pacific are planning to integrate edge fully into their cloud-based infrastructure. In the next two years, IDC believes that close to 30% of new enterprise infrastructure deployment in Asia Pacific is likely to happen at the edge.
Future technologies will enable a fully digitalized, automated and programmable world of connected humans, machines, things and places. All experiences and sensations will be transparent across the boundaries of physical and virtual realities. Traffic in future networks will be generated not only by human communication but also by connected, intelligent machines and bots that are embedded with artificial intelligence (AI). As time goes on, the percentage of traffic generated by humans will drop as that of traffic generated by machines and computer vision systems – including autonomous vehicles, drones and surveillance systems – rises.
The machines and other ‘things’ that make up the Internet of Things (IoT) require even more sophisticated communication than humans do. For example, connected, intelligent machines must be able to interact dynamically with the network. Sensor data will be used to support the development of pervasive cyber-physical systems consisting of physical objects connected to collaborative digital twins. Future network capabilities will also include support for the transfer of sensing modalities such as sensations and smell.
In the vision of zero-touch network management and operations, networks are deployed and operated with minimum human intervention, using trustworthy AI technologies. All operational processes and tasks, including, for example, delivery, deployment, configuration, assurance and optimization, will be executed with 100 percent automation.
The network itself will continuously learn from its environment observations, interactions with humans and previous experiences. The cognitive processes understand the current network situation, plan for wanted outcome, decide on what to do and act accordingly. The outcome serves as an input to learn from its actions. The cognitive network will be able to optimize its existing knowledge, build on experience and reason in order to solve new problems.
Global Communication Networks Market
The Global Communication Networks Market is expected to grow from USD 4.2 trillion in 2021 to USD 5.8 trillion by 2030, at a CAGR of 3.6% during the forecast period (2021-2030). The growth will be driven by factors such as increased adoption of wireless technologies and the need for faster data transmission in various industries including transportation, oil and gas industry, mining industry, etc.
Communication networks are a series of interconnected computers that use routers and switches to send messages. Communication networks do not have specific geographic locations, but rather exist in cyberspace as packets of data moving through nodes at the speed of light. The goal is for two or more people on different parts of the planet to be able to communicate with each other instantaneously without any delay. Networks can also be used by organizations (or countries) who want their offices around the world connected so they can share information quickly and efficiently from anywhere at any time, such as during natural disasters like floods or earthquakes when traditional lines are often down due to damage or malfunctioning equipment.
On the basis of Type, Global Communication Networks Market is segmented into Wired Communications Technology, Wireless Communications Technology.
Wired Communications Technology:
Wired communications technology is used to transmit data over a network by using fiber optic cables. The use of wired communication in the global communication networks market will grow at an exponential rate due to the increasing adoption of broadband connections and the explosion in demand for bandwidth-intensive services such as video, voice, and cloud computing applications.
Wireless Communications Technology:
Wireless communications technology is used to transmit data over a network without the use of physical cables. The global communication networks market will witness an exponential growth in demand for wireless-based services such as voice, video, and cloud computing applications due to the increasing adoption of broadband connections across different geographic regions.
On the basis of Application, Global Communication Networks Market is segmented into Electrical Transmission, Oil and Gas Industry, Transportation, Mining Industry, City Communications.
Electrical power is the most dominant type of energy transmitted in global communication networks. Electrification has various applications, all of which are related to some point on the production and distribution chain. It can also be used as a backup for other sources of energy when they fail to function or if there’s an emergency that requires it. The increasing population worldwide will increase demand for electrical services and products; this will in turn make economic growth possible by providing more jobs while generating wealth through additional tax revenue.
Oil and Gas Industry:
The oil and gas industry is the second largest application segment in the global communication networks market. The oil and gas companies produce fuel, crude oil products such as gasoline, diesel fuel, or jet fuels from petroleum which makes significant use of communication networks to transfer data among their offshore operations. With this growth of the oil production worldwide leading to rising exploration activities for new sources of hydrocarbons, it is anticipated that demand for wired communications technology will see an increase during the next ten years mainly due to high investments made by operators on installing infrastructure across various regions like North America, Europe, etc.
The transportation industry is one of the most important segments in terms of communication networks. This segment includes all commercial and government-related activities that are involved with transporting humans, animals, and goods from one place to another or within a region.
The mining industry is a key sector that drives the demand for communication networks. It relies on machineries, such as drills and excavators, to extract valuable minerals from the earth. Therefore, these tools need an efficient network infrastructure to transmit data so they can be monitored in real-time at any point in time. One example is the use of wireless communications technology for watchdogs (WDT) that are used by mines to monitor machinery performance and safety features before accidents occur.
The world is moving towards smart cities; these make use of connectivity for various purposes. Communication networks are the backbone of any city and enable an exchange of data to take place between different stakeholders, such as citizens, businesses, or government agencies. These communication networks can be used by a variety of actors to fulfill their roles within this new environment – enabling them to access information in real-time and provide it back into the network for others who need it.
On the basis of Region, Global Communication Networks Market is segmented into North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and the Middle East & Africa.
North America is expected to dominate the global communication networks market in 2021 owing to the high demand for wired communications technologies. Also, it has a more established telecommunication infrastructure and a robust data transmission network coupled with an extensive broadband internet access system which makes it favorable among others regions. Latin America on the other hand, provides a huge amount of investment opportunities for telecom service providers due to its growing economy backed up by rising middle-class population and increasing expenditure per capita together with government initiatives such as ‘Mexico Connect Initiative’-a program aimed at boosting public Wi-Fi coverage over major cities that will offer free unlimited mobile data plans for users. Europe has seen a steady growth in its communication networks market owing to the new developments and innovations with regards to wired communications technologies, wireless communications technology, and other applications supported by rapid urbanization, growing smartphone penetration rates coupled with high investment in digital infrastructure projects such as Digital Single Market which is aimed at boosting European competitiveness. Asia Pacific (APAC) region accounts for over 45% of installed telecommunication lines worldwide and also offers huge potential due to rising demand for internet connectivity among emerging countries like India that will offer immense opportunity for telecom service providers. APAC regions also have access to favorable technological advancements whether it be data transmission networks or broadband internet leading towards low prices making it an attractive destination for investments from various telecom service providers.
The growth factor of the Global Communication Networks Market:
The growth in this market can be attributed to an increase in investment and popularity of data networking devices along with demand for wireless communications devices such as smartphones, broadband-enabled TVs, tablets, etc. One key driver that has helped develop this market is the rapid adoption rate of next-generation technology like fiber optic cables which are helping enterprises make faster decisions and respond more quickly to changes in their business conditions.
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