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Harnessing the Power of Microbes: Bacteria Generate Electricity from Wastewater

In the quest for sustainable energy sources, scientists have turned to some of the tiniest and often underestimated heroes of the natural world: bacteria. These microscopic powerhouses are demonstrating their ability to generate electricity from an unlikely source – wastewater. In this blog, we’ll explore the remarkable phenomenon of bacteria generating electricity, how it works, and its potential to revolutionize the way we treat wastewater and produce clean energy.

The Microbial Power Plants

Imagine wastewater treatment facilities that not only clean our water but also generate electricity in the process. It might sound like science fiction, but it’s becoming a reality thanks to a field of study known as microbial electrochemistry. This emerging field focuses on the interaction between microorganisms, such as bacteria, and electrodes to produce electrical current.

How Bacteria Produce Electricity

The secret behind bacteria generating electricity lies in their metabolic processes. Certain types of bacteria are known as ‘electrogenic,’ which means they can transfer electrons outside their cells. When these electron-transfer capabilities are harnessed, they can be used to generate an electric current.

Here’s a simplified breakdown of how this remarkable process works:

  1. Electron Transfer: Electrogenic bacteria consume organic matter present in wastewater as their food source. During digestion, they release electrons as a metabolic byproduct.
  2. Electrodes: Electrodes are strategically placed in the vicinity of these bacteria. The electrons released by the bacteria are drawn towards the electrodes due to differences in electrical potential.
  3. Electricity Generation: The flow of electrons from the bacteria to the electrodes creates an electric current. This current can then be harvested and used to power various applications.

Applications and Benefits

The ability of bacteria to generate electricity from wastewater opens up exciting possibilities:

  1. Clean Energy: Microbial fuel cells, which utilize this technology, offer a sustainable source of clean energy. They can be used to power sensors, small devices, or even contribute to the grid’s electricity supply.
  2. Wastewater Treatment: Integrating microbial electrochemistry into wastewater treatment facilities can make the process more energy-efficient. It reduces the environmental impact and operational costs associated with traditional treatment methods.
  3. Environmental Sustainability: By harnessing bacteria’s electricity-generating potential, we can reduce our reliance on fossil fuels, decrease greenhouse gas emissions, and alleviate the strain on our planet’s resources.


Recent Breakthroughs

Researchers at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL)  have engineered a strain of E. coli bacteria to generate electricity from wastewater. E. coli bacteria, a staple of biological research, have been harnessed to create electricity through a process known as extracellular electron transfer (EET). Unlike previous methods that required specific chemicals for electricity generation, the bioengineered E. coli can produce electricity while metabolizing a variety of organic substrates. The bacteria are able to do this by transferring electrons from the organic matter in the wastewater to an electrode.

This new technology has the potential to revolutionize wastewater treatment. Instead of being a costly and energy-intensive process, wastewater treatment could become a source of renewable energy. The technology could also be used to generate electricity in remote areas where access to the grid is limited.

How it works

The EPFL researchers genetically engineered E. coli bacteria to express a protein called MtrC. MtrC is an outer membrane protein that allows bacteria to transfer electrons to their environment. The researchers also engineered the bacteria to produce a small molecule called flavin mononucleotide (FMN). FMN is a cofactor that is essential for many biological processes, including electron transfer.

Once the bacteria are engineered, they are grown in a bioreactor with wastewater. The bacteria break down the organic matter in the wastewater and transfer electrons to the MtrC protein. The MtrC protein then transfers the electrons to an electrode. The electrons flow through the electrode to an external circuit, generating electricity.

One of the study’s key innovations is the creation of a complete EET pathway within E. coli, a feat not achieved before. By integrating components from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a bacterium famous for generating electricity, the researchers successfully constructed an optimized pathway that spans the inner and outer membranes of the cell. This novel pathway surpassed previous partial approaches, and led to a three-fold increase in electrical current generation compared to conventional strategies.

Benefits of the technology

This new technology has a number of potential benefits, including:

  • Reduced energy costs: Wastewater treatment is a major energy consumer. This new technology could help to reduce the energy costs of wastewater treatment by generating electricity from the wastewater itself.
  • Increased sustainability: Wastewater treatment plants often produce methane, a greenhouse gas. This new technology could help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by generating electricity from wastewater instead of methane.
  • Decentralized energy production: This technology could be used to generate electricity in remote areas where access to the grid is limited. This could help to improve energy access and reduce energy poverty.

There are still some challenges that need to be addressed before this technology can be commercialized. One challenge is that the bacteria need to be able to survive and function in a variety of wastewater conditions. Another challenge is that the efficiency of the electricity generation process needs to be improved. The EPFL researchers are working to address these challenges. They are also working to develop pilot-scale systems to test the technology in real-world conditions.


While the concept of bacteria generating electricity from wastewater is promising, it’s not without its challenges. Researchers are still working to optimize the technology for practical and large-scale applications. Some key areas of focus include improving the efficiency of electron transfer, scaling up the technology, and addressing issues related to biofouling (accumulation of microorganisms on electrodes).

Future Prospects

The future of microbial electrochemistry holds immense potential. As the technology matures, we can expect to see more wastewater treatment facilities adopting this eco-friendly approach. Additionally, microbial fuel cells could become a common feature in remote or off-grid locations, providing a sustainable source of energy.

In conclusion, the ability of bacteria to generate electricity from wastewater represents a remarkable intersection of biology and green technology. It offers a glimpse into a future where the treatment of wastewater is not just a necessity but also a source of clean, renewable energy. As researchers continue to unlock the potential of these tiny power generators, the possibilities for a more sustainable and eco-friendly world expand.

About Rajesh Uppal

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