Advances in automotive design have led to an exponential increase in vehicle electronics. Today’s vehicle design improvements are due in large part to the application of electronics to automotive systems. Vehicle functions are divided into systems and sub-systems to provide for passenger entertainment, comfort, and safety, as well as to improve vehicle performance and enhance power-train control.
These systems must communicate with one another over a complex heterogeneous in-vehicle network (IVN). In-vehicle networking, also known as in-vehicle multiplexing, is a method of transferring data or signals among the electronic components of a car through a common serial data bus. Every vehicle requires an In-vehicle networking, inter-module dedicated communication system. Without an in-vehicle networking system, the electronic components can be connected with each other by point-to-point wiring, however, it will result in a complex, expensive, and bulky system. By applying In-vehicle networking, it helps to reduce the number of wires by combining multiple signals on a single wire through time division multiplexing. In an in-vehicle networking system, the functions can be added easily by making changes in software and In-vehicle networking makes the communication system compact.
The automotive industry, together with technology providers and standardization bodies, has developed specialized communication protocols or made extensions to existing standards to meet the demanding requirements of the automotive domain. Nowadays most of these networking solutions are standardized and maintained by standardization bodies like ISO, IEEE or SAE.
Each network typically contains multiple communication protocols including the industry standard Controller Area Network (CAN), Local Interconnect Network (LIN), and the recently developed FlexRay standard.
Controller Area Network
CAN is the most commonly used protocol for low- and medium-speed automotive control applications. An event-driven communication protocol used in applications such as engine management and body electronics.
Originally specified for a transmission speed up to 1Mbps and 8 bytes of payload data, CAN FD (Flexible Data-Rate) was introduced to increase maximum transmission speeds with 64 bytes of payload. Standard CAN transceivers support bitrates of 2Mbps, and even 4Mbps under favorable conditions. Due to ever-increasing demand in transmission speed and data throughput, the CAN protocol is again undergoing enhancement, to support transmission speeds up to 10Mbit/s and up to 2048 bytes of payload. This enhanced version of CAN is named CAN-XL and is fully backward-compatible to CAN FD.
High-speed CAN is suitable for critical loads such as anti-lock braking systems and cruise control. Low-speed CAN is fault-tolerant and used for loads such as power seats and motorized windows.
In the early 2000s, Ethernet was introduced to the automotive industry for On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) and audio/video applications.
Another advancement in Ethernet technology that has expanded its use in automotive environments is the development of full-duplex physical layer technology consisting of a single twisted pair. This robust physical layer started with support for 100Mbps and meets demanding automotive requirements. Today, transmission speeds are supported all the way from 10Mbps up to several Gigabits.
Local Interconnect Network
Local Interconnect Network (LIN) is a vehicle network protocol, managed by a single master, that achieves a superior cost-performance ratio. It is used in switch/sensor input monitoring and in actuator control.
A low-speed master-slave time-triggered protocol meant to connect on-off type loads to higher speed networks. Typical loads include door locks, sun roofs, rain sensors, and powered mirrors. A LIN network is used as a low cost alternative if the full functionality of the CAN protocol is not required.
A fault-tolerant high-speed communication protocol targeted toward safety-related applications. The protocol can be operated in single or dual channel mode, where each channel has a maximum data rate of 10 Mbps. Using a dual-channel configuration, a FlexRay network can operate at speeds 20x faster than the maximum CAN bus data rate specification. Along with enabling safety-related applications, a FlexRay network is well suited as a communication backbone connecting heterogeneous networks together.
In-Vehicle Network Architecture
New communication protocols, higher bandwidth demands, new applications, more complex communication matrices: all of this impacts the network architecture requirements.
Historically, in-vehicle networks were organized into logical domains, such as “Body”, “Chassis”, and “Powertrain”. These domains were interconnected through a central gateway. In the future, the concept of specialized ECUs for domain-specific functions will continue, but the general trend is moving toward separation according to physical location (Zones) rather than by logical function.
Zone ECUs connect via high-speed networks to a central ECU where much of the processing is done. These ECUs face several challenges. In the past, ECUs supported only CAN and LIN interfaces with relatively low-speed traffic. There was already the need to bridge between different CAN channels or between CAN and LIN, but these bus speeds range only from 20kbps up to 10Mbps. In addition, these protocols generate event rates and data that can be handled by current real-time processors such as the RH850.
Ethernet, on the other hand, adds new orders of magnitude to the required throughput demands. Transmission speeds of 10Gbps and data lengths on the order of kilobytes are major concerns, as newer, faster networks still need to connect to low-speed buses, while protocol conversion is performed in the background.
In-Vehicle Networking Solution Market
In-Vehicle Networking Solution Market size was valued at USD 22.9 Billion in 2021 and is projected to reach USD 68.33 Billion by 2030, growing at a CAGR of 12.01% from 2022 to 2030.
In-Vehicle Networking Solution Market is expected to show tremendous growth during the forecasted period due to the increasing trend of vehicle electrification and raising demand for advanced safety and convenience. In automobiles, the demand for in-vehicle networking is estimated to increase due to increasing vehicle production and the growing trend of vehicle electrification. The primary factor driving the growth of the In-Vehicle Networking Solution Market is the increasing use of electronic vehicles, additionally rising demand for advanced safety, convenience, and comfort systems are contributing to the growth of this market. Furthermore, the increasing focus on the reduction of CO2 emissions from vehicles is also fuelling the growth of this market.
In-Vehicle Network is used to distribute network architecture of medium-sized data volume and is a cost-effective solution, the flexible and scalable property of Ethernet makes it the key element of an in-vehicle networking system. It also comprises CAN (Controller Area Network) that is used for backbone network, powertrain chassis, and body systems, the other part of the in-vehicle networking system is LIN (Local Interconnect Network) takes on board a single master to achieve a superior cost-performance ratio and is used in sensor input actuator and in switch input.
Based on Connectivity Standards, the market is segmented into CAN, LAN, Ethernet, and RF. Ethernet is estimated to show significant growth during the forecasted period as it is flexible and scalable. CAN, which can be used for backbone network and LIN takes on board a single master for superior cost-performance ratio.
The In-Vehicle networking Market for passenger cars is estimated to hold the largest share during the forecasted period. The growing use of semiconductor components in the ECU (Electronic Control Unit) is proving an opportunity for a cost-effective and smart solution in the in-vehicle networking solution system.
Based on Application, the market is segmented into power train, body electronics, and others. The power train is the fabrication of every component which pushes the vehicle forward, A car’s power train provides power from the engine to the wheels to the ground, it is an essential group of parts that work together to provide power and movement to the car. Body Electronics is an electronic network of systems that is integrated into the vehicle to perform certain functions including safety functions, instrument diagnosis, and managing the power supply.
On the basis of Geography, the Global In-Vehicle Networking Solution Market is classified into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and the Rest of the world. The Asia Pacific has held the largest share of this market as this region has emerged as a major automotive hub and has maximum market share with respect to vehicle production as well as sales. North America is estimated to grow at the fastest rate during the forecasted period owing to its advanced technology in the automotive sector as well as the high demand for premium cars with high semiconductor content in this region.
Major players operating in the global next-generation in-vehicle networking (IVN) market include Acome, Aricent Inc, Agilent Technologies, AISIN AW Co Ltd, Analog Devices, Broadcom, Bosch, Daimler AG, Freescale, Harman, Infineon Technology AG, NXP Semiconductor NV, Robert Bosch GmBH, Renault SA, Renesas, Texas Instruments, Visteon, Wurth Elektronik, Yazaki Corporation, and Xilinx.
• In May 2022, NXP Semiconductors announces the pricing of senior unsecured notes, the notes will be fully and unconditionally guaranteed on a senior basis by NXP semiconductors N.V. and will be structurally subordinated to the liabilities.
• In May 2022, Infineon Technologies AG announced it has switched the operation of its Austin, Texas semiconductor factory, which represents a major milestone in the company’s goal to use green power for all of its U.S. sites.