Home / Geopolitics / Unraveling the Israel-Hamas Conflict: Chaos, Challenges, and Ongoing Developments

Unraveling the Israel-Hamas Conflict: Chaos, Challenges, and Ongoing Developments


The Israel-Hamas conflict, which has gripped the international community’s attention, is marked by chaos, unprecedented events, and a myriad of challenges. This comprehensive article combines the key elements from three distinct pieces, providing an in-depth analysis of the ongoing developments, foreign involvement, intelligence failures, counterintelligence success, and the scope of the conflict.

The Unprecedented Attack

The armed wing of the Palestinian group Hamas launched a massive, complex, and well-coordinated attack on Israel early Saturday from the territory it controls in Gaza. Militants killed over 1,200 people, including 11 US citizens, kidnapped civilians and reportedly soldiers, and fired rockets on Israeli civilians.

Militants from Gaza fired thousands of rockets towards Israeli towns on Saturday morning, before breaking through the heavily fortified border fence with Israel and sending militants deep into Israeli territory. There, Hamas gunmen killed hundreds of people, including civilians and soldiers, and took hostages, sometimes from their homes.

Israel took two days to secure its territory in the south, while pressing an air assault and siege on Gaza and gauging whether or how to send ground forces into the Gaza Strip, given Hamas and its collaborator Palestinian Islamic Jihad (the “Resistance Front”) claim to be holding more than 100 hostages.

As they retreated into Gaza, the militants claimed to have taken up to 150 hostages with them and have threatened to kill them if airstrikes target Gaza without warning. Israel has pledged that Hamas will pay a heavy price and may now be preparing a ground incursion into Gaza.

It was the most devastating and brutal assault Israel had suffered in decades; Israeli officials described it as their country’s 9/11. The horror of the attack has only become clearer in the days since. In response, the country officially declared war against Hamas on Sunday. The declaration comes after the Biden administration’s promise of additional support for Israel and the announced movement of several US warships and aircraft squadrons into the Eastern Mediterranean. Several countries, including Egypt and Jordan, have volunteered to try to defuse the situation diplomatically.

The chaos and confusion of this weekend’s unprecedented and devastating Hamas attack on Israel appears to be continuing into the response by both Israel and the United States. Authorities in Israel and Gaza reported that at least 900 Israelis and 560 Palestinians have been killed, including hundreds of young people at an outdoor, all-night music festival in the Israeli desert. Fighting and airstrikes continue.

Foreign Involvement Behind the Hamas Attack

The events beg a number of questions about potential foreign involvement in the Hamas attack, including the nature and extent of Iranian involvement; the intelligence failures on the part of Israel, the United States, and others, as well as Hamas’ apparent counterintelligence success; and how to avoid unnecessary escalation and loss of civilian lives in the military responses underway now and coming in the days and weeks ahead.

One of the pressing questions is the nature and extent of Iranian involvement in the Hamas attack. While the United States and other officials are still searching for concrete evidence, reports suggest that Iranian security officials may have played a significant role in planning and authorizing the attack. The extent of Iran’s involvement, whether merely supportive or deeply intertwined, remains uncertain.

Israeli, U.S., and other officials are still looking for clear evidence to determine the extent and nature of Iranian involvement in the Hamas attack or planning and preparations for it. The Wall Street Journal yesterday cited “senior members of Hamas and Hezbollah” claiming “Iranian security officials helped plan” and “gave the green light.” Specifically, the Journal wrote, “Officers of Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps had worked with Hamas since August to devise the air, land and sea incursions,” and “[d]etails of the operation were refined during several meetings in Beirut attended by IRGC officers and representatives of four Iran-backed militant groups, including Hamas, which holds power in Gaza, and Hezbollah, a Shiite militant group and political faction in Lebanon, they said.”

Others have cautioned that Iran’s involvement may be more complex. While it has long supported Hamas, Islamic Jihad, Hezbollah, and associated forces, Iran’s relationship with these groups should not necessarily be conceived as a traditional one of command and control. Most analysts seem to agree that it would be inconceivable that this attack would have been launched without an Iranian green light, at minimum. But precisely what support Iran may have offered and its degree of involvement in attack planning remain big question marks at this stage.

U.S. officials have said to date that they have found no evidence of Iran’s direct involvement. Secretary of State Antony Blinken told CNN yesterday, “We have not yet seen evidence that Iran directed or was behind this particular attack, but there is certainly a long relationship.”


Intelligence Failures – and Counterintelligence Success

The attack represents a significant intelligence failure for Israel and its allies, as it took both Israeli and U.S. officials by surprise. The meticulous planning, weapons stockpiling, and potential regional coordination went unnoticed, highlighting a breach in intelligence gathering and analysis. This failure also suggests that Hamas employed advanced counterintelligence measures, underscoring the need for a thorough review.

The intelligence failures are also a huge counterintelligence win for Hamas. To have carried out an attack of this size and complexity without being detected, Hamas likely employed sophisticated counterintelligence measures beyond what it was capable of in the past. Israel will have to take immediate steps to determine what counterintelligence measures were employed, root out any potential insider threats, and fill crucial gaps in its intelligence-collection posture going forward.

Military Responses and the Scope of the Conflict

Amid the comparisons to the 9/11 attacks on the United States, some analysts, including former U.S. officials in government at the time, have already advised that Israel should heed lessons from the successes – and failures – of the U.S. response in the weeks and years that followed. Many of the actions taken in the immediate aftermath of the 9/11 attacks are ones that have haunted the United States for decades, and that could easily have been avoided if commitment to core democratic values and the rule of law had prevailed. Moreover, those same actions needlessly alienated allies and partners, eroding the strong base of support the United States enjoyed in the immediate aftermath of the attacks.

In the current environment, Palestinians not involved with Hamas are asking the international community to press the Israeli government to avoid reprisal attacks on civilians. At the same time, there are already some voices calling loudly for widening the war to Iran or other regional players. As noted above, however, the United States, for its part, is making clear it has not seen specific evidence of Iran’s direct involvement, and also has sent a carrier strike group to the region as a warning not to escalate.


The Israel-Hamas conflict is a complex and rapidly evolving situation, riddled with challenges and unanswered questions. Addressing these issues is essential for understanding the factors behind the conflict, preventing further escalation, and seeking diplomatic resolutions. As this crisis continues to unfold, it is crucial to stay informed and engage in meaningful discussions surrounding these pressing issues.

About Rajesh Uppal

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