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China’s continuing military deployment in ongoing Border conflict in Ladakh raising future threat for full scale war

The Indian and Chinese armies were locked in a bitter standoff in multiple locations in eastern Ladakh since may 2020. The tension escalated manifold after a violent clash in Galwan Valley in which 20 Indian Army personnel were killed. The Chinese side also suffered casualties but it is yet to give out the details. According to an American intelligence report, the number of casualties on the Chinese side was 35. China’s rise and assertive behaviour in the Indo-Pacific Region—as demonstrated most recently by the June 15 clashes between Chinese and Indian troops in the Galwan Valley region —has contributed to a strategic convergence between the United States and India.

 

With no signs of de-escalation, the India Army has also deployed forces in depth to back the troops close to the LAC in case of an escalation. Among other things, tanks, Armoured Personnel Carriers (APCs), artillery guns and air defence systems have been moved to eastern Ladakh within weeks of China’s aggressive posturing along the LAC.

 

This is second major attempt by China to change the status quo on the LAC. Earlier in June 2017, a military standoff occurred between China and India as China attempted to extend a road on the Doklam Plateau southwards near the Doka La pass and Indian troops moved in to prevent the Chinese. India claimed to have acted on behalf of Bhutan, with which it has a ‘special relationship’. Bhutan also then formally objected to China’s road construction in a disputed area. The Doklam plateau is located near the tri-junction of India, Bhutan and China.

 

On August 28, 2017, it was announced that India and China had mutually agreed to a speedy disengagement on the Doklam Plateau, ending the military face-off that lasted for close to three months. Soldiers have been withdrawn, said an official with India’s Ministry of External Affairs. The Chinese foreign ministry, however, sidestepped the question of whether Beijing would continue the road construction. However, the Latest reports and satellite images of the area indicated that China is continuing with road construction activity on its side of the trilateral boundary. In Jan 2018, Hindustan Times reported that Chinese and Indian security forces have been locked in a standoff near Bishing in Arunachal Pradesh’s Upper Siang district for more than a week.

 

As is the case with many other Chinese territorial claims, such as those in Arunachal Pradesh or the South China Sea, China is also seeking to establish greater strategic depth around its borders. In Ladakh specifically, this means expanding control from the open plains of Xinjiang into the much more defensible Tibetan Plateau.

 

China has been carrying out rapid military modernization and many of that directly threatens the future standoffs in the region. To prepare for such a contingency, both India and China have invested significantly in units capable of mountain and high-altitude warfare. Every year, during the summer months, India conducts a military exercise in Ladakh to test and improve the preparedness of its troops deployed in high-altitude areas. China also holds a similar exercise in Tibet or Xinjiang.

 

Aircraft carriers, stealth fighters, anti-satellite weapons, drones, cyber attack technology and a growing arsenal of ballistic missiles are all among a series of Chinese weapons said to present serious concerns for Pentagon leaders and weapons developers, according to DoD’s annual China report. China is believed to possess as many as 1,200 short-range missiles and up to 300 intermediate range missiles, according to the report. With this in mind, the report specifies that some of China’s longer-range, precision-guided ballistic missiles are able to reach US-assets in the Pacific region. China is known to have conducted several hypersonic weapons tests. Not surprisingly, US Air Force leaders are currently accelerating prototyping, testing and development of hypersonic weapons.

 

China’s shipyards have launched the PLA Navy’s first two Type 075 amphibious assault ships, which will form the spearhead of an expeditionary force to play a role similar to that of the U.S. Marine Corps. And like the Marines, the new force will be self-contained – able to deploy solo with all its supporting weapons to fight in distant conflicts or demonstrate Chinese military power. The first Type 075 was launched in September 2019 and the second in April 2020, according to reports in China’s official military media. A third is under construction, according to the May edition of a Congressional Research Service report. Eventually, the PLA Navy could have seven or more of these ships, according to reports in China’s official military press. Its main aim is to project power far from home, but it is also strengthening its ability to invade Taiwan.

 

Container housing modules across friction points, including Jeevan Nullah and Dehra La, installation of surveillance equipment, construction of communication towers at Changmu, and conversion of a major army supply depot at Shiquanhe town are some of the other strategic build-ups that point towards preparation for war. Taking a leaf out of the supposed success of UAVs in the recent Armenia-Azerbaijan war, a noticeable increase in the number of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles at Hoping airbase close to Sikkim has been noticed as well writes Rajesh Sinha in EurAsian Times . An electronic warfare unit with four counter space jammers has been deployed at Nyanglu, 60kms from the Arunachal Pradesh border, with the possible intent to try and jam the Indian GSAT and communication satellites, in the event of a war.

 

China Military modernization for Mountainous terrains

Any future conflict in such areas would have surmount challenges of the difficult mountain terrain and complex weather conditions. The high-altitude environment is characterized by bad weather and snow, thin air, severe cold, oxygen deficiency, high-intensity ultraviolet radiation, and generally poor living conditions. The terrain is complex with steep mountains, and weak infrastructure including few and poor-quality roads and airports leading to significant mobility and resupply problems. Most areas have little vegetation limiting camouflage capabilities. The region contains mostly minority populations creating sensitive ethnic and religious issues.

 

Imagery analysis has shown increased Chinese Air Force aircraft deployments and facility improvements over the past few years, as well as recent increases in aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), at regional air bases which could better support operations against India. UAVs include the CH-4 recon/strike UAV deployed at Xigaze. The PLA has deployed  CH-4, which underwent tests in the Tibetan plateau region in 2018, and the BZK-005C, specifically modified for use in high altitudes. Since 2017, China has exported CH-4 and CH-5 fixed-wing reconnaissance and strike drones, selling them to more than 10 countries, shipping more than 200 units every year. During China’s National Day parade in October 2019, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) displayed a number of UAVs — DR-8 supersonic spy drone, the GJ-11 stealth combat drone and the GJ-2 reconnaissance and strike drone. Recently, China also conducted a test of swarm drones.

 

In June 2020, Chinese run state media, including the government’s mouthpiece Global Times highlighted new weapons optimised by the People’s Liberation Army for high-altitude warfare including two types of helicopters and a light tank. On June 2, the Global Times reported that the People’s Liberation Army in Tibet “sent troops to a high-altitude region at an elevation of 4,700 meters at night for infiltration exercises behind enemy lines…” China’s new-generation lightweight battle tank has already  into service, as the military seeks to boost combat ability in high-altitude areas. The Type 15 light tank has better mobility than other tanks used by the People’s Liberation Army and will strengthen combat readiness in plateau regions such as Tibet, military analysts said.

 

In June 2020, Global Times reported PLA’s “large-scale manoeuvre operation” featuring thousands of troops and armoured vehicles transported over “thousands of kilometres” in “just a few hours” to the “high-altitude northwestern region”. The report said that the troops were transported to Hubei and Xinjiang, a distance of around 3000 kms in a few hours. The Global Times also shared a video showing hundreds of PLA personnel boarding buses, flights and trains from the central province of Hubei to an “undisclosed location” in the plateaus of northwestern China. Provinces in northwestern China include Gansu, Qinghai and Xinjiang, the last of which borders India.

 

The report also showed PLA moving heavy artillery, tanks, armored vehicles and other military equipment and supplies in the manoeuvre operation, “which ended successfully in just a few hours.” The report said that Chinese armoured vehicles, including tanks, of the PLA Western Theater Command took part in an exercise on May 14. The PLA Western Theater Command oversees the border with India. The continued media reports on high-altitude exercises is being perceived as an attempt at projecting a muscular image over the standoff with India.

 

Amid a tense stand-off between the two nuclear countries for over a month, the Chinese army has heightened activities of its military helicopters along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) in eastern Ladakh, ANI reported in June 2020. The report said that the activity of Chinese helicopters, including MI-17 has gone up significantly in the last seven to eight days on their side of the LAC, apparently to provide assistance to its troops deployed on various locations along the LAC. The Chinese army, the report says has been extensively using choppers to fly around Indian locations in the Eastern Ladakh sector including the Galwan area. “In the Galwan area, their choppers had even come above our locations and hovered over a road construction site there on one occasion recently,” the sources told the news agency. They added that the Chinese have been frequently doing air space violations using their choppers and have been carrying out patrols near the Indian locations on the LAC.

 

The  People’s Liberation Army has constructed an underground new facility near Ngari , the Chinese PLA’s second in Tibet, and stands just about 60 km away from the Indian Army’s forward posts at Demchok in Ladakh. China’s military is bolstering the management of its border defence by developing new types of equipment including a satellite early warning system that can be used to monitor the border areas in all environments, according to official media reports.

 

As part of its hybrid warfare, China continues to keep up the propaganda machine oiled. From providing its troops with warm clothing, comfortable living conditions on borders to launching never-seen-in-the-world weapons and using Directed Energy Weapons (DEWs) to reoccupy unknown, unnamed territories against Indians are the usual camouflaged techniques, expected from the PLA.

 

Chinese Army Intensifies Drone Drills To Supply Frontline PLA Soldiers With Critical Equipment

The Chinese People Liberation Army (PLA) conducted a wartime drone supply-delivery drill in the Tibetan plateau, at an altitude of 4,500 meters, an exercise which was supervised by the PLA Army’s Logistics Department and the PLA Tibet Military Command’s Support Department reported in Nov 2020.

 

China Military Online reported the exercise as part of the PLA’s war planning initiatives, aims to ensure unhindered supply of ammunition and military equipment irrespective of the conditions to the soldiers. “The front is blocked by ‘enemy’ fire, and the vehicles and personnel of the transportation unit have much trouble in marching on. The drone delivery unit must act quickly to deliver supplies to the designated area!” As part of the exercise, the drone delivery unit quickly acted upon an order, assembling and debugging nine drones, which were then flown to the area where the transportation unit was blocked. PLA Tibet Military Command, which has a dedicated transportation unit, swiftly transported food supplies, drinking water, medicine and other urgently needed materials, loading them as payloads on the autonomous drones, which took off in a battle group successively.

Drone Delivery Drill Amid Reports of China-India Disengagement

Song Zhongping, a military expert, quoted by GT even said that such logistics are the key for soldiers’ performance in military conflicts, and logistics support can be challenging in complex plateau areas. Drones can be employed to quickly deliver supplies at designated points, improving the PLA’s combat effectiveness, he said. The use of UAVs in military conflicts is getting increasingly common, not just in combat missions, but logistics support too, and any country that masters the UAV tech has high chances of commanding the edge in a battle. The use of UAVs is an important embodiment of future unmanned warfare. Logistics remains an important part of any military since the supply of ammunition, food, and fuel must remain consistent on the battlefield. The frontline warfighters need at least 2-3 soldiers supporting them with logistics, which is called the tooth-to-tail ratio — the amount of trigger pullers versus logistics and supply personnel.

 

The CMO quoted the chief of the PLA’s Logistic Department, who said the flight status of the drone is not always stable due to the influence of high altitude and bad weather. “The operators need to make a comprehensive judgment on the terrain, wind speed, temperature and other factors, to ensure the drones’ safe landing at the predetermined area,” he added.

 

Satellite images show China is building underground facility 50 km from India border

The People’s Liberation Army has constructed an underground facility (UGF) barely 50 km from the India-China border, and just 60 km from the Indian forward posts at Demchok in Ladakh.

 

So far, there was just one UGF in Tibet, with another one which could possibly target India being a fair way away in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. But now, thanks to satellite imagery, ThePrint has identified a deeply buried hardened target (DBHT) under construction near the town of Ngari, also known as Shiquanhe in Mandarin, which could of worry to India. The UGF is served by four large tunnel entrances and three small ones. Most of them have barracks at the entrance for security personnel. The amount of earth excavated indicates that approximately 3.5 lakh cubic metres of space has been created inside the UGF.

 

Although it is difficult to indicate the exact purpose of this facility with such low temporal resolution, it can safely be assumed that it may be used for storage of missiles and/or ammunition on wheels, according to ThePrint’s .

 

Border Management

China’s military is bolstering the management of its border defence by developing new types of equipment including a satellite early warning system that can be used to monitor the border areas in all environments, according to official media reports. A satellite early-warning monitoring system is planned in some border areas that are in dispute or are difficult to enter and patrol, state-run Beijing Evening News reported yesterday.

 

A surveillance camera network has also been built in border zones and the density of coverage is set to increase to cover blind spots, the report said but did not mention which, or if all, of China’s border regions are covered. The Line of Actual Control (LAC) between India and China covered 3,488 kms which included Arunachal Pradesh, claimed by China as part of southern Tibet. The informatization and mechanisation of equipment, vehicles and monitoring methods of People’s Liberation Army (PLA) border defence will give an early-warning of any risks to security as well as overcoming previous blind spots, Song Zhongping, a military expert was quoted as saying by the Global Times.

 

The PLA has to increase the level of automation of its equipment, Song noted. This will include using drones and tracking vehicles to conduct patrols and setting up unmanned monitoring systems, which means border regions will come under continuous monitoring and control. To cater to various geographic environments along China’s long borders, the PLA has developed equipment that can be used in water, in the air or on land, Song said. While reporting about the new border monitoring system, the Global Times mentioned Pangong Lake in Ladakh, where skirmishes took place between Indian and Chinese troops after border guards foiled an attempt by Chinese soldiers to enter Indian territory in August last year.

 

The PLA has deployed a new patrol boat there which is made of non-metallic materials, the report said. The craft has a top speed of 40 km per hour and can resist ice collisions. A type of heavy scout vehicle, called the “wild ox,” capable of accommodating 17 full-armed soldiers, has been deployed to a border defence regiment in Southwest China’s Yunnan Province, which shares a border with three countries. Besides a BeiDou satellite navigation system, akin to that of US Global Position System (GPS), the vehicle also has a real-time communication system installed.

 

The scout vehicle also has water filters, a kitchen and a toilet so it can conduct patrols in tropical environments. The report also implied that in the jungles of Yunnan, the sparsely populated deserts of Xinjiang and the high plateaus in Tibet, PLA troops began using drones to patrol more areas than 10 years ago, which has resulted in a 25-fold increase in efficiency. Border defence troops in Koktokay, in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, have recently tested more than 20 types of new equipment.

 

Koktokay in northern Xinjiang and bordering Mongolia has an average temperature of -20 degree celsius in winter. A new type of hot water bottle that can keep water hot for 24 hours has been issued to soldiers in Koktokay. The troops garrisoned at Koktokay have also tested other new equipment such as cold-proof blankets, tents and snow camouflage suits. “Logistics support is the main guarantee to generate combat capability,” Song said. “These changes all benefit from China’s increasing military technology ability and innovation,” Song noted.

 

Previous reports said guard rails have been set up along the border to prevent terrorists sneaking into China through Xinjiang’s Kashgar, a prefecture that shares a border with Afghanistan, Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK) and Kyrgyzstan. China has ramped up security along the Xinjiang border to prevent the crossings of militants of the East Turkistan Islamic Movement (ETIM) active in the province.

 

China’s new electromagnetic rocket more powerful than most conventional artillery on Qinghai-Tibet plateau

Han Junli, a research fellow at a Beijing-based research center under the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), is leading the development of the electromagnetic rocket artillery, inspired by Ma Weiming, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering dubbed “the father of the Chinese electromagnetic catapult,” Science and Technology Daily reported.

 

Han reportedly mentioned a military incident that occurred in a border region on a plateau in Southwest China, where he saw the potential necessity of deploying rocket artillery. China has large plateau and mountainous areas where rocket artillery could destroy invading forces from hundreds of kilometers away without soldiers crossing mountains, Han said, according to the newspaper.

 

“Conventional artillery that uses powder may suffer from lack of oxygen on plateaus,” Song Zhongping, a military expert and TV commentator, told the Global Times on Thursday. “Artillery that uses an electromagnetic catapult will not need to face the same problem. This makes it very valuable in warfare on plateaus.” When using electromagnetic force for the initial boost instead of an explosive powder, shells fly smoother and hit targets more accurately, Song said.

 

Electromagnetic rocket artillery can easily reach targets beyond 200 kilometers at a relatively lower cost than conventional artillery, Song said. Han’s research has made an important technological breakthrough and the development plan is becoming a reality, the Beijing-based newspaper said.

 

Using an electromagnetic catapult for rocket artillery is an unprecedented innovation, Science and Technology said. “China needs to not only develop weapon concepts that are already available to the world, but also explore new, not-yet-present weapons to lead the frontier of technology development,” Song said.

 

Specialized Light Equipment

The editor of the journal Ordnance Knowledge (兵器知识) has stated that the PLA is developing lightweight equipment to better conduct mountain operations (China Daily, July 17). Army units in the Tibet region are equipped with some specialized light mobile equipment, including armed 8X8 all-terrain armed vehicles and the PCL-09 122mm truck-mounted howitzer (MOD, January 4, 2017; MOD, May 23, 2017). The Z-20 medium lift helicopter reportedly has similar capabilities to the U.S. Black Hawk and is capable of operating at high altitudes (China Daily, January 3, 2014).

 

Light Tank

China has also developed a new light tank to replace old Type 62 light tanks that had been deployed to many units in the southern mountain regions. China’s new-generation lightweight battle tank has gone into service, as the military seeks to boost combat ability in high-altitude areas. The Xinqingtan was tested in July 2017 in the Tibet region bordering India. and guided missiles. “There are some areas in the mountains where light tanks will be useful,” said Rahul Bhonsle, a defense analyst and retired Indian Army brigadier.

 

Designed to be operated in mountainous areas and over rugged terrain, the tank is equipped with a 105mm main gun that can fire armour-piercing rounds and gun-launched missiles. The Type 15 has an engine capable of 1,000 horsepower and is significantly lighter than the PLA’s other main battle tanks in service, weighing about 32 to 35 tonnes. That compares to the Type 99, which weighs 54 to 58 tonnes, and the Type 96 at 42.8 tonnes.

 

Beijing-based military affairs commentator Song Zhongping said the PLA Marine Corps needed to upgrade some of its key equipment. He said they were using the Type 62 tank, which only has about 500 horsepower and an 85mm main gun. “The Type 62 tank is lagging behind,” he said. “The Type 15 has much better protection capability and manoeuvrability.”

 

Z-20 Helicopters

PLA has indegenously developed its fleet of UH-60 helicopters, reported to be copy of US Blackhawk helicopters which it obtained from pakistan, that was abandoned by US special forces during Osama bin Laden operations in 20111. Developed by state owned Aviation industry  Corp ( AVIC) of China, it differs from Balckhawk by having a fly-by-wire design and a five blade rotor instead of four blade of Blackhawk. Z-20  also has a more angular tail-to-fuselage joint frame for greater lift, cabin capacity and endurance, and its communications system is reportedly compatible with the country’s BeiDou satellite navigation system.

 

Fitted with domestic WZ-10 turboshaft engine, providing 1600 KW of thrust, it can operate in the mountains of Qinghai and Tibet at an altitude of upto 4000 meters and can form the backbone of the PLA’s contingency response to transport troops and goods there. It is also versatile and small enough to be interoperable across chinese naval vessels while still being able to have afull suite of anti-submarine warfare capabilites installed.

 

China conducts first plateau flight test of unmanned helicopter reported in Sep 2020

China has conducted the first flight test of a locally developed unmanned helicopter in a plateau region. The aircraft’s developer, Aviation Industry Corp of China (AVIC), conducted the test of its AR-500C prototype helicopter at the Daocheng Yading Airport, the highest civilian airport in the world. During testing, the AR-500C completed multiple tests such as climbing, hovering and other manoeuvres in 15 minutes.

 

This unmanned aerial vehicle is expected to be deployed in the China-India border region to offer logistics support and armed reconnaissance missions, Global Times reported quoting defence analysts. The publication further reported that AVIC conducted the maiden flight of the unnamed system in a low-altitude region earlier this year. The latest test demonstrates the AR-500C’s capability to operate on all types of terrain. In a statement released in May, AVIC claimed that the system can be used for reconnaissance and communication missions.
It can also be used for electronic disruption, target indication, fire strikes, nuclear radiation and chemical contamination reconnaissance, as well as cargo delivery.

 

Communications Infrastructure

China is also modernizing its communications infrastructure in the border areas. Two Indian officials said in Sep 2020 that  Chinese troops were laying a network of fibre optic cables at a western Himalayan flashpoint with India, suggesting they were digging in for the long haul despite high-level talks aimed at resolving a standoff there. Such cables, which would provide forward troops with secure lines of communication to bases in the rear, have recently been spotted to the south of Pangong Tso lake in the Himalayan region of Ladakh, a senior government official said.

 

Above Leh, Ladakh’s main city, Indian fighter planes flew throughout the morning on Monday, their engines booming and echoing across the valley surrounded by brown, barren mountains. “Our biggest worry is that they have laid optical fibre cables for high-speed communications,” the first official said, referring to the lake’s southern bank, where Indian and Chinese troops are only a few hundred metres apart at some points. “They have been laying optical fibre cables on the southern bank at breakneck speed,” he said. Indian intelligence agencies noted similar cables to the north of the Pangong Tso lake about a month ago, the second government official said.

 

Further it has already setup advanced 5G networks which when integrated with fiber optic links give them  the systems could reduce latency and accelerate the transmission of vast amounts of data across battle domains.

 

China launches 5G base station in Everest and  Tibet-Qinghai region

In July 2020 Chinese tech giant Huawei and state-owned network provider China Mobile teamed up for developing 5G Network  to bring the latest in wireless data to Everest, which previously had very little cell coverage above base camp. In a press release, Huawei stated that the new super-fast data speeds on Everest will be used for “smart tourism”—with high-definition video streaming and virtual reality experiences for digital tourists to “visit” Everest from anywhere in the world. Huawei said the 5G network would also serve as a useful tool for mountaineers and scientists on the mountain. There will be better communication during rescues if climbers get injured or caught in bad weather, and tourists traveling from afar can keep up with their social media.

 

China laid claim to Tibet, home of the ethnic Tibetan people, following an invasion by the People’s Liberation Army—the armed forces of the People’s Republic of China—in 1950. Tibet, now officially called the Tibet Autonomous Region, is the second-largest province in China by area and the highest-elevation region in the world. The southern border of Tibet is drawn by the Himalaya Mountains, and the summit of Mount Everest separates China from its neighbor Nepal. Since asserting power in Tibet, China has held a firm grasp on its control by militarizing the border between Tibet and Nepal, developing infrastructure across the province and into the mountains, and hiding its activities—particularly human rights violations against the Tibetan people—behind a curtain that few journalists have been allowed past, writes ARI SCHNEIDER in SLATE.

 

India expressed concern last year about the potential for 5G’s military applications after China built 5G stations near Tibet’s border with India. Elsa Kania, an adjunct senior fellow at the Center for a New American Security who researches Chinese military innovation, wrote for Defense One, “China’s agenda for 5G can be linked to its strategy for national and defense ‘informatization.’ … 5G could improve battlefield communications with faster and more stable information transmission.” 5G is expected to be 10 times faster than the 4G that most people have experienced on their smartphones since 2012. More speed means more powerful applications and more functionality from mobile devices. It also means 5G is well suited to support the high levels of data transfer required for artificial intelligence and the connecting of machines through the Internet of Things, which experts believe can better support military activities like border monitoring and weapons deployment.

In a post published by the Brookings Institution, Kania wrote that the Chinese military has been investing significantly in applications of artificial intelligence and machine learning. In late June, the U.S. Defense Department produced a list of 20 companies, including Huawei and China Mobile, alleging they have been backed by the Chinese military.

 

In 2019, China has opened its first 5G base station for the Qinghai-Tibet plateau region, The service was opened in the city of Xining, Qinghai Province, according to the Qinghai subsidiary of the telecom firm China Mobile. Currently, part of the city’s downtown area is covered by 5G service, having the peak download speed of 1.3 Giga byte per second (Gbps), about 10 times that of 4G service, the state-run Xinhua news agency reported.

 

Chinese telecom giant China Mobile launched the first 5G base station in Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region, laying the foundation for launching large-scale network tests in the southwestern region. Outdoor terminal tests showed the base station can offer an average Internet speed of some 500 Mbps and a 1GB file can be downloaded in only two seconds, said China Mobile’s Tibet branch on Friday.

 

China Mobile has two additional 5G base stations in Lhasa that are yet to be launched for tests, said Nyima Dondrup, manager of the network department of China Mobile’s branch in Lhasa. The staff are busy conducting 5G application tests and will later apply the 5G technology to smart city construction and digital life, said Nyima Dondrup. The company will accelerate network construction in Tibet, allowing people in remote areas to enjoy the same modern information and communication services as those in the developed regions, he said. The Internet is rapidly entering the lives of Tibetans. By 2018, mobile broadband (including 3G and 4G) users in Tibet amounted to 2.76 million households, with the local mobile broadband penetration rate at 83.35 percent, according to the communication administration of Tibet.

 

The 5G is also a key technology that shall enable IoT and Military internet of things (MIOT). Analogous to IoT, Military internet of things (MIOT) comprising multitude of platforms, ranging from ships to aircraft to ground vehicles to weapon systems, is expected to be developed. MIoT offers high potential for the military to achieve significant efficiencies, improve safety and delivery of services, and produce major cost savings.

 

New arctic uniforms being tested for the Chinese army

The Logistic Support Department under China’s Central Military Commission (CMC) recently organized try-on tests of the new generation of cold protective clothing in a frontier defense company under the PLA Xinjiang Military Command located in Koktokay of Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region.

 

Compare with the past winter clothes of the PLA, the design of the new generation is more combat-oriented to meet training and operational demands in various conditions. The new winter clothes, besides keeping the soldiers on hours-long outdoor guard and patrol duties warm, can also reduce the wearer’s physical energy consumption during combat operations. Soldiers in the company said that, compared with the previous types of winter clothes. the new winter clothes are lighter in weight and more breathable, so they feel warmer in the new ones. The latest-developed snow camouflage coat is able to counter ultraviolet reconnaissance, Zhang Hua, an expert from a military supplies engineering and technological research institute of the PLA Academy of Military Science, told PLA Daily.

References and Resources also include:

http://www.armyrecognition.com/weapons_defence_industry_military_technology_uk/new_arctic_uniforms_for_the_chinese_army.html

https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/defence/doklam-exposed-fragility-of-ties-with-india-chinese-daily/articleshow/62251156.cms

http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1113596.shtml

https://theprint.in/security/satellite-images-show-china-is-building-underground-facility-50-km-from-india-border/179792/

https://slate.com/technology/2020/07/mount-everest-5g-china-tibet-nepal-border.html

https://kashmirobserver.net/2020/06/08/china-displays-military-might-amidst-ladakh-stand-off/

https://www.army-technology.com/news/china-plateau-flight-test-unmanned-helicopter/

https://eurasiantimes.com/chinese-army-intensifies-drone-drills-to-supply-frontline-pla-soldiers-with-critical-equipment/

https://eurasiantimes.com/china-has-deployed-satellite-jammers-near-indian-border-as-pla-gets-battle-ready-at-breakneck-speed/

 

Cite This Article

 
International Defense Security & Technology (October 6, 2022) China’s continuing military deployment in ongoing Border conflict in Ladakh raising future threat for full scale war. Retrieved from https://idstch.com/geopolitics/chinas-continuing-military-deployment-in-ongoing-border-conflict-in-ladakh-raising-future-threat-for-full-scale-war/.
"China’s continuing military deployment in ongoing Border conflict in Ladakh raising future threat for full scale war." International Defense Security & Technology - October 6, 2022, https://idstch.com/geopolitics/chinas-continuing-military-deployment-in-ongoing-border-conflict-in-ladakh-raising-future-threat-for-full-scale-war/
International Defense Security & Technology January 2, 2021 China’s continuing military deployment in ongoing Border conflict in Ladakh raising future threat for full scale war., viewed October 6, 2022,<https://idstch.com/geopolitics/chinas-continuing-military-deployment-in-ongoing-border-conflict-in-ladakh-raising-future-threat-for-full-scale-war/>
International Defense Security & Technology - China’s continuing military deployment in ongoing Border conflict in Ladakh raising future threat for full scale war. [Internet]. [Accessed October 6, 2022]. Available from: https://idstch.com/geopolitics/chinas-continuing-military-deployment-in-ongoing-border-conflict-in-ladakh-raising-future-threat-for-full-scale-war/
"China’s continuing military deployment in ongoing Border conflict in Ladakh raising future threat for full scale war." International Defense Security & Technology - Accessed October 6, 2022. https://idstch.com/geopolitics/chinas-continuing-military-deployment-in-ongoing-border-conflict-in-ladakh-raising-future-threat-for-full-scale-war/
"China’s continuing military deployment in ongoing Border conflict in Ladakh raising future threat for full scale war." International Defense Security & Technology [Online]. Available: https://idstch.com/geopolitics/chinas-continuing-military-deployment-in-ongoing-border-conflict-in-ladakh-raising-future-threat-for-full-scale-war/. [Accessed: October 6, 2022]

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