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Biotechnology Superpowers: China and the United States in a Global Race


The 21st century has witnessed an unprecedented race in the field of biotechnology, with two global giants, China and the United States, leading the way. Both nations are investing heavily in research, innovation, and infrastructure to dominate this cutting-edge industry. In this article, we’ll delve into the exciting, competitive landscape of biotechnology, exploring how China and the U.S. are racing towards scientific breakthroughs and technological advancements.

The Biotechnology Boom

Biotechnology, the fusion of biology and technology, encompasses a wide range of applications, including healthcare, agriculture, industrial processes, and environmental sustainability. It has the potential to revolutionize the way we produce food, treat diseases, and address global challenges, making it a critical field for future development.

Biotechnology is reshaping the world as we know it, with a staggering global market share estimated at over $1.37 trillion in 2022. The race to dominate this industry has seen exponential growth, driven by the COVID-19 pandemic, propelling it to an estimated annual growth rate of 14%. By 2028, the industry is poised to reach an astonishing $2.44 trillion. In this intense competition, two global giants, China and the United States, are leading the way, each vying to be at the forefront of biotechnological advancements.

China’s Biotechnology Ascent

China has emerged as a formidable contender in the global biotechnology race. China’s biotechnology sector is growing rapidly. In 2021, China’s biotechnology market was valued at $145 billion, and it is expected to grow to $340 billion by 2027.

The Chinese government is investing heavily in biotechnology research and development, and it is also encouraging private investment in the sector. China has listed biotechnology as one of its seven strategic emerging industries in 2010. In its 13th Five-Year plan (2016-2020), China’s Ministry of Science and Technology released a comprehensive biotechnology development plan.

The Chinese government’s substantial investments in research and development have fostered an environment ripe for biotech startups and innovation. This rapidly growing biotech sector positions China to become a global biotechnology leader.

  1. Genomics and Precision Medicine: China is making significant strides in genomics and precision medicine. Large-scale population genomics projects and the application of AI to personalized healthcare are making genetic testing and tailored treatments more accessible.
  2. CRISPR Technology: China grabbed international attention with its pioneering work in gene editing using CRISPR-Cas9 technology. Researchers have made groundbreaking advances in agriculture with genetically modified crops capable of withstanding pests and harsh environmental conditions.
  3. Vaccines and Biopharmaceuticals: Chinese biotech companies are competing globally with vaccines, biopharmaceuticals, and antibody therapies. The ongoing pandemic has accelerated China’s biopharmaceutical research and development efforts.

China possesses several distinct advantages in the field of biotechnology:

  1. Abundance of Skilled Scientists and Engineers: The nation boasts a vast reservoir of highly skilled and dedicated scientists and engineers who are actively engaged in biotechnological research and development. Their expertise plays a pivotal role in driving innovation and advancing the industry.
  2. Robust Manufacturing Infrastructure: China’s biotechnology sector benefits from a well-established and robust manufacturing base. This infrastructure facilitates the production of biopharmaceuticals, genetic engineering, and various biotechnological products on a large scale, both efficiently and cost-effectively.
  3. Expansive and Thriving Domestic Market: With its vast and continually expanding domestic market, China provides a fertile ground for biotechnology companies. This extensive market not only fuels research and development efforts but also offers opportunities for the swift adoption of biotechnological advancements.

The United States: A Biotech Powerhouse

The United States boasts a rich history of leadership in biotechnology and continues to be a dominant force in the industry. The U.S. enjoys a thriving biotech ecosystem, including established companies, world-renowned research institutions, and a dynamic startup culture.

  1. Genomic Research: American universities and research institutes lead in genomic research, making groundbreaking discoveries in gene sequencing and personalized medicine.
  2. Biopharmaceutical Innovation: The U.S. biopharmaceutical industry maintains its global leadership, producing revolutionary drugs and therapies for various diseases.
  3. Bioinformatics and AI: The United States stands at the forefront of innovation by merging biotechnology with cutting-edge technologies like bioinformatics and artificial intelligence. This convergence is driving research and discovery to new heights.

The United States is endowed with a multitude of strengths in the field of biotechnology, which encompass:

1. World-Class Research Infrastructure: The United States boasts an extensive network of research universities, government laboratories, and private enterprises that stand on the cutting edge of biotechnology research. An exemplary illustration of this is the presence of the National Institutes of Health, renowned as the world’s foremost biomedical research agency.

2. Strong Track Record of Innovation: With a rich history of pioneering breakthroughs in biotechnology, the United States has consistently been a trailblazer in this field. Notable milestones include the development of the first genetically engineered crops and the introduction of pioneering gene therapy treatments. Moreover, the country hosts some of the globe’s premier biotechnology companies, such as Genentech and Amgen.

3. Abundant Venture Capital Funding: The United States enjoys a thriving venture capital industry that actively invests in nascent biotechnology enterprises. This vital support system is instrumental in facilitating the advancement of new biotechnology products and services, fostering innovation and entrepreneurship within the sector.

Collaboration and Competition

The global biotechnology landscape is marked by both collaboration and competition between China and the United States. Researchers, scientists, and companies from both nations often work together on international projects, sharing knowledge and resources. However, intense competition remains as each country strives to outpace the other in biotech advancements.

ASPI’s Critical Technology Tracker update shows the intense competition between the United States and China in the sector which, along with artificial intelligence, is anticipated to deliver some of the most life-changing technologies over the coming decades. The update adds four new technologies to the biotechnologies category: novel antibiotics and antivirals, genome and genetic sequencing and analysis, genetic engineering and nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. They join three existing fields in the tracker: vaccines and medical countermeasures, synthetic biology and biological manufacturing.  The main distinction between synthetic biology and genome editing is that compared to genome editing, synthetic biology can involve the insertion of longer sections of DNA with the possibility of creating an entirely different organism like a recoded E. Coli.

Of the four new fields, the US leads high-impact research in genetic engineering and nuclear medicine and radiotherapy, while China is ahead in genome and genetic sequencing and analysis, and novel antibiotics and antivirals. Among the previously reported biotech fields, China leads in biological manufacturing and synthetic biology and the US leads in vaccines and medical countermeasures. China’s strong performance in synthetic biology is almost twice the percentage of the AUKUS alliance combined with South Korea and Japan.

The Critical Tech Tracker reveals the strong performance of the Middle Eastern countries of Iran, Egypt and Saudi Arabia in novel antibiotics and antivirals. The development of novel antibiotics and antivirals is important both in treating and suppressing infection and diseases. Antibiotics are used not only to treat infections but also to suppress secondary infection during surgeries, thus saving millions of lives. However, the overuse and misuse of antibiotics in the modern world have given rise to drug resistant infections that cannot be treated. Antibiotic resistance is a global threat not only to human health but also to food security, due to its widespread use in animal husbandry and fish farming.

Here are some notable breakthroughs in biotechnology achieved by both China and the United States:


  • Artificial Synthesis of Glucose and Fatty Acids from CO2: Chinese scientists at the Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, CAS, accomplished the remarkable feat of artificially synthesizing glucose and fatty acids from CO2 in a cell-free system. This breakthrough holds significant potential for conserving water resources and optimizing land use on a global scale.
  • Development of a New Malaria Vaccine: Shenzhen Kangtai Biological Products Co., Ltd., a Chinese company, introduced a novel malaria vaccine that has exhibited promise in clinical trials. This vaccine, based on a weakened form of the malaria parasite, has demonstrated effectiveness against multiple parasite strains.
  • Approval of the World’s First CAR T-Cell Therapy for Leukemia: In 2021, China granted approval for the world’s first CAR T-cell therapy for leukemia. This groundbreaking therapy, developed by Chinese company Legend Biotech, has proven effective in treating patients with relapsed or refractory leukemia.

United States:

  • Development of a New Gene Editing Tool: U.S. scientists pioneered the development of a cutting-edge gene editing tool known as CRISPR-Cas9. This revolutionary tool surpasses its predecessors in precision and efficiency, holding the potential to revolutionize the treatment of genetic diseases.
  • Development of a New Cancer Vaccine: U.S. scientists have created a groundbreaking cancer vaccine exhibiting promise in clinical trials. This vaccine, built on a modified form of the measles virus, has displayed efficacy against various types of cancer.
  • Approval of the World’s First mRNA Vaccine for COVID-19: In 2020, the United States authorized the world’s first mRNA vaccine for COVID-19. This vaccine, developed by the U.S. company Pfizer, has proven highly effective in preventing COVID-19 infection.

Challenges and Ethical Concerns

The biotechnology race comes with its set of challenges and ethical dilemmas. Matters related to gene editing, data security, and biotechnology regulations spark vigorous debates. There are high-level risks associated with gene editing. For example, the CRISPR-Cas9 technique is not error-proof as the process can insert or delete DNA letters at the points of insertion, potentially leading to a mixture of different versions of the edited cell. The possibility of developing a severely sick baby or a Frankenstein-like monster is no longer far-fetched.

Striking the right balance between innovation and responsible biotechnology development is of paramount importance.


The global biotechnology race between China and the United States is propelling innovation and research at an unprecedented pace. These two global titans are pushing the boundaries of what’s achievable in fields like genomics, biopharmaceuticals, and precision medicine. The future of biotechnology is likely to be shaped by this fierce yet cooperative competition, leading to transformative breakthroughs with the potential to address some of the world’s most pressing challenges. As we witness this scientific rivalry unfold, it’s imperative to recognize the significance of responsible biotechnology development to ensure a brighter, healthier, and more sustainable future for all.


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