In our rapidly evolving digital world, the Internet of Things (IoT) has become an integral part of our daily lives and military operations alike. From smart thermostats to advanced defense systems, IoT devices have transformed the way we interact with technology. However, as these devices continue to proliferate, so do the cyber threats and vulnerabilities they bring. In this article, we explore the pressing need for end-to-end security solutions to safeguard billions of everyday and military IoT devices.
The IoT Explosion
The IoT ecosystem encompasses a vast array of devices, ranging from smart refrigerators and wearables to autonomous vehicles and critical military infrastructure. These devices comprise personal devices such as smart watches, digital glasses and fitness monitoring products, food items, home appliances, plant control systems, equipment monitoring and maintenance sensors, and industrial robots.
These devices are designed to collect and exchange data to enhance our convenience, efficiency, and safety. According to a report by Statista, the number of global IoT devices is expected to reach 29.42 billion by 2030. This is a significant increase from the 15.14 billion IoT devices that were estimated to be in use in 2023. However, the sheer number and diversity of IoT devices create an expansive attack surface for cybercriminals and state-sponsored actors to exploit.
The IoT: A Double-Edged Sword
While the IoT offers immense potential for convenience, efficiency, and military superiority, it also presents a rapidly expanding attack surface for cybercriminals and state-sponsored actors. The interconnectedness of these devices, coupled with potential security gaps, creates an environment ripe for exploitation.
In 2015, HP highlighted a disturbing statistic, reporting that as many as 70% of commonly used IoT devices were susceptible to cyberattacks and breaches. This alarming vulnerability raises significant concerns about the security of the rapidly expanding IoT ecosystem.
One concerning case involved Samsung’s SmartThings Hub, where security firm Cisco Talos identified 20 vulnerabilities. These security flaws could potentially allow attackers to execute malicious commands or arbitrary code on the affected devices. The consequences of a compromised smart home hub are grave, as it can serve as a gateway for attackers to infiltrate home networks, access sensitive data, control devices, and even spy on residents. Thankfully, Cisco Talos collaborated with Samsung to address these vulnerabilities, releasing firmware updates to rectify the issues and protect affected customers.
Commonly, cyber actors exploit IoT devices with weak authentication, unpatched firmware, or other software vulnerabilities. The FBI notes that brute force attacks targeting devices with default usernames and passwords are also commonplace. A glaring weakness in many IoT devices is the absence of encryption, coupled with an inability to receive prompt security updates. This combination of factors leaves devices vulnerable, with no recourse for users when vulnerabilities are discovered, as pointed out by Ian Lyte, a security consultant at Protection Group International (PGI).
One striking example of IoT vulnerability occurred during the Cyber Security Challenge 2017, where participants hacked into a GPS tracking device intended for installation in a fictional car leasing company’s fleet of vehicles. Through this compromised device, the attackers gained unauthorized access to the company’s internal network, effectively bypassing security protocols and making illicit bookings for luxury vehicles. This scenario underscores the real-world risks posed by IoT vulnerabilities and their potential to infiltrate secure networks.
Hard-coded credentials, often accessible to anyone with access to device firmware, pose a significant security risk. These credentials can enable attackers to execute commands from the compromised device, similar to the tactics used by the infamous Mirai botnet that disrupted major websites. Such vulnerabilities are not limited to consumer devices but extend to medical devices, further underscoring the need for robust security measures.
Moreover, instances of IoT devices constantly transmitting data back to manufacturers have raised privacy concerns. This includes smart TVs recording conversations and surveillance cameras communicating with wide-reaching P2P networks. Steve Bell, a security expert for BullGuard, highlights the troubling default settings of many IoT devices, which often disregard security and privacy considerations. Additionally, a lack of awareness about these vulnerabilities in IT departments compounds the problem. Devices with open ports are particularly vulnerable, making them enticing targets for malicious actors.
In conclusion, the vulnerabilities within the IoT landscape are numerous and diverse, ranging from weak authentication and unpatched firmware to hard-coded credentials and privacy issues. Addressing these security challenges is paramount to ensuring the safety and integrity of interconnected systems in the IoT era.
Cyber Threats to Everyday IoT Devices
Data Breaches: Personal IoT devices, such as smart home gadgets and wearable tech, often handle sensitive data like personal identification information, location data, and even health-related details. This wealth of sensitive information makes these devices prime targets for data breaches. When malicious actors successfully breach the security of these devices, they can gain access to personal data, leading to identity theft and fraud. The consequences of such breaches can be financially and emotionally devastating for individuals, as well as damaging to their overall trust in IoT technology.
Botnet Attacks: Vulnerabilities in IoT devices can turn them into unwitting participants in botnet armies. Botnets are networks of compromised devices controlled by cybercriminals. These compromised IoT devices, due to their large numbers and interconnectedness, can be harnessed to launch large-scale cyberattacks, such as Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. In these attacks, the compromised devices flood a target with an overwhelming volume of traffic, causing services to become inaccessible. These attacks not only disrupt online services but can also serve as diversions for other malicious activities, like data theft or network infiltration.
Privacy Concerns: IoT devices are constantly collecting data, often without users’ explicit consent or knowledge. This continuous data collection raises significant privacy concerns. The information gathered by IoT devices, including users’ behaviors, preferences, and habits, can be misused in various ways. It could be exploited for surveillance purposes, tracking individuals’ movements and activities. Additionally, this data may be used for targeted advertising, potentially infringing on users’ privacy by bombarding them with tailored advertisements. In more sinister scenarios, this data could be maliciously exploited for activities such as blackmail or harassment.
Addressing these privacy concerns is crucial to ensure that users can enjoy the benefits of IoT technology without sacrificing their personal privacy and security. It underscores the importance of implementing robust data protection measures, user consent mechanisms, and transparent data usage policies in the IoT ecosystem.
Several incidents have demonstrated the risks associated with Internet of Things (IoT) devices. These include an internet-connected fridge being used for spam, hackers remotely controlling a Jeep Cherokee, and a connected hospital medicine pump being vulnerable to tampering.
The FBI has issued warnings regarding the security risks posed by unsecured smart devices, including routers, IP cameras, smart locks, and connected doors. Cybercriminals actively target vulnerable IoT devices to use them as gateways for hacking and other cyberattacks. IoT proxy servers are especially attractive to malicious actors as they provide anonymity by routing malicious traffic through compromised devices’ IP addresses. This makes it challenging to distinguish regular traffic from malicious activities.
The healthcare sector also faced a significant threat when the FDA issued an alert regarding a connected hospital medicine pump. This device was susceptible to compromise, enabling attackers to tamper with dosage settings, putting patients’ lives at risk.
In 2016, a massive Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack was orchestrated using compromised IoT devices, causing widespread internet disruptions. These attacks often exploit well-known vulnerabilities like default passwords. These examples demonstrate the growing threat posed by IoT devices. As IoT devices become more and more common, they are also becoming more attractive targets for cybercriminals.
DDoS attack on cryptocurrency exchange
In 2022, a botnet of over 100,000 hacked IoT devices was used to launch a DDoS attack against the website of a major cryptocurrency exchange. The attack overwhelmed the exchange’s website with traffic, making it inaccessible to users. This type of attack can be very disruptive and costly for businesses, as it can prevent them from operating and serving their customers.
Ransomware attack on IoT devices
In 2023, a ransomware attack targeted over 10 million IoT devices, including routers, security cameras, and NAS drives. The attackers encrypted the devices and demanded a ransom payment in exchange for the decryption key. This type of attack can be very costly for businesses and individuals alike, and it can also be very disruptive, as it can prevent businesses from operating and individuals from accessing their data.
Data breach of smart home devices
In 2023, a group of hackers exploited a vulnerability in a popular smart home device to gain access to the home networks of users and steal their personal data. This type of attack can be very damaging to individuals, as it can put their personal information at risk, such as their financial data, login credentials, and browsing history.
DDoS attacks, ransomware attacks, and data breaches are all common types of cyberattacks, and they can be devastating for businesses and individuals alike.
The rapid expansion of the Internet of Things (IoT) has raised significant concerns about the security and safety of interconnected systems. Without robust security measures, the growing IoT ecosystem could introduce vulnerabilities across various technological domains. IoT inherently creates billions of insecure endpoints, making it a prime target for cyberattacks, warns Eric Chiu, president of cloud security vendor Hytrust. A single security gap in this interconnected web could lead to widespread repercussions.
Safety is intrinsically linked to security within IoT. Malicious hackers could exploit vulnerabilities in critical IoT devices, such as implantable medical devices like cardiac pacemakers, cochlear implants, and diabetic pumps, potentially causing harm or even fatalities. A study by security research company Synack revealed that commonly connected products have various safety issues. For instance, it took just 20 minutes for an analyst to breach a range of devices, highlighting the urgent need for enhanced security in IoT.
The proliferation of autonomous vehicles, such as self-driving cars, introduces new risks. If these vehicles were hacked and controlled by malicious actors, it could pose significant public safety and economic threats. To address these concerns, governments, like the UK, have imposed regulations on driverless cars, and industry leaders, such as Intel, have established initiatives like the Automotive Security Review Board to focus on car security in IoT.
Nicholas D. Evans, leading the Strategic Innovation Program for Unisys, outlines potential scenarios that have already begun to materialize, including connected homes being hacked to facilitate theft, connected autonomous vehicles being sabotaged to cause accidents, and connected hospitals being vulnerable to hacking, affecting the operation of medical devices. Moreover, manufacturers’ IoT systems can be targeted, disrupting warehouse operations, equipment monitoring, and supply chain activities. These examples demonstrate the diverse security challenges that IoT applications present.
The range of malicious activities that compromised IoT devices can be used for includes sending spam emails, concealing network traffic, generating fraudulent ad revenue through click fraud, and employing credential-stuffing attacks to gain entry into wider networks.
With IoT devices collecting and sharing vast amounts of data, ranging from IP addresses to health-related information, proper security measures are imperative to protect against identity theft, financial exploitation, and potential health risks. Implementing comprehensive security measures remains critical to control how data generated by IoT is used, ensuring the safety and privacy of users.
Cyber Threats to Military IoT Devices
Security equipment, including advanced systems like smart rifles, faces vulnerability to exploitation by politically and criminally motivated hackers. Notably, security researchers Runa Sandvik and Michael Auger demonstrated unauthorized access to a smart rifle’s software via its WiFi connection, exploiting several vulnerabilities within its proprietary software. They were able to manipulate the TP750 smart rifle, causing it to miss its intended target and fail to fire a bullet.
One major concern in IoT security is the protection of critical infrastructure. In factory floor automation, programmable logic controllers (PLCs) used in robotic systems must be safeguarded from human interference. Similarly, control systems for nuclear reactors must receive timely software updates and security patches without compromising safety. Smart meters that transmit energy usage data for billing or grid optimization must ensure the protection of this information from unauthorized access or disclosure.
The military is increasingly exploring the use of Internet of Things (IoT) technology to enhance the capabilities of warfighters. IoT offers the potential for greater intelligence and improved coordination among military personnel.
The domains of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Military IoT present complex security challenges. Embedded and Mission-Specific Devices (EMSDs) used in these environments must contend with limitations such as constrained computational resources, intermittent connectivity, and the inability to modify them once deployed. These constraints, coupled with cost sensitivity and a lack of standardized hardware and software, necessitate the development of specialized cybersecurity measures tailored to resource-constrained devices.
Furthermore, IoT systems often operate autonomously, making independent decisions without human intervention. This autonomy heightens the importance of ensuring data integrity and trustworthiness in these systems. The use of deception tactics and the need for non-spoofable identities underscore the significance of reliable data sources in IoT.
National Security Risks: Military IoT devices play a critical role in modern warfare, providing essential functions such as communication, surveillance, and control of military assets. However, the compromise of these devices can pose severe national security risks. Adversaries, including state actors and cybercriminals, may exploit vulnerabilities in military IoT devices to conduct espionage activities. This could involve intercepting sensitive communications or gaining unauthorized access to classified information, which could compromise national defense strategies and intelligence operations.
In the military context, the adoption of IoT is hindered by security concerns, as adversaries possess advanced cyber and electronic warfare capabilities. As a result, securing military IoT systems is paramount, and lightweight cryptography emerges as a critical component to safeguard devices with limited processing capabilities. These challenges emphasize the need for innovative cybersecurity solutions to navigate the evolving landscape of IoT security.
Military IoT networks will face a range of threats from adversaries, including physical attacks on infrastructure, direct energy attacks, radiofrequency channel jamming, attempts to disrupt power sources for IoT devices, electronic eavesdropping, and malware. These threats underscore the importance of robust cybersecurity measures and resilient network infrastructure to safeguard military IoT deployments.
Operational Disruption: Another significant threat associated with compromised military IoT devices is the potential for operational disruption. These devices are integral to military operations, controlling everything from unmanned aerial vehicles to logistics and supply chain management. A successful cyberattack on military IoT devices can disrupt critical functions, leading to equipment malfunctions, communication breakdowns, and delays in decision-making. Such disruptions can have far-reaching consequences, potentially compromising mission success and the safety of military personnel.
Intellectual Property Theft: Military organizations invest heavily in research and development to maintain a technological edge over adversaries. This includes the development of advanced IoT technologies for military applications. Adversaries may target military IoT devices with the intention of stealing valuable intellectual property, including proprietary algorithms, software, and hardware designs. Intellectual property theft can provide adversaries with a significant advantage in future conflicts, as they gain access to cutting-edge technology and the ability to replicate or counter military innovations.
In the foreseeable future, IoT is expected to become ubiquitous in military operations. However, to fully leverage IoT’s benefits, the military must establish heterogeneous and flexible networks capable of functioning in environments with intermittent connectivity without overburdening soldiers.
Securing military IoT devices is paramount to national security. Robust cybersecurity measures, regular vulnerability assessments, and rigorous testing are essential to protect these devices from threats. Additionally, military organizations must continuously adapt to emerging cybersecurity challenges, acknowledging that adversaries are actively seeking opportunities to exploit vulnerabilities in the evolving landscape of military IoT.
The Need for Comprehensive Security
Securing the IoT ecosystem is paramount to harnessing its benefits while mitigating the inherent risks. Here are key strategies to ensure the security of IoT devices:
1. Device Authentication and Encryption
Implement robust authentication mechanisms and encryption protocols to safeguard data in transit and at rest, preventing unauthorized access.
2. Regular Software Updates
Manufacturers must provide timely security updates to address vulnerabilities. Users should promptly apply these updates to keep their devices secure.
3. Network Segmentation
Isolate IoT devices from critical network segments to limit the potential impact of a breach.
4. Identity and Access Management (IAM)
Utilize strong IAM practices, including secure authentication and role-based access control, to manage device access effectively.
5. Behavioral Analytics
Leverage advanced analytics to detect abnormal behavior patterns in IoT devices and identify potential threats.
6. Security by Design
Manufacturers should prioritize security throughout the entire development lifecycle of IoT devices, from design to retirement.
7. Collaboration and Information Sharing
Government agencies, industries, and cybersecurity experts must collaborate to share threat intelligence and best practices for IoT security.
8. Compliance and Regulation
Governments should establish regulations and standards for IoT security to ensure manufacturers adhere to secure practices.
Beyond these security measures, it’s essential to recognize that IoT security encompasses not only national security but also personal safety and privacy.
IoT and Personal Safety
IoT devices, if compromised, can pose significant threats to personal safety, particularly in the healthcare sector. Medical devices like pacemakers, cochlear implants, and insulin pumps can be targeted by hackers, potentially leading to life-threatening situations.
IoT and Privacy Concerns
The continuous collection of data by IoT devices, whether intentional or passive, exposes individuals to identity theft, financial fraud, and other privacy violations. Without robust security measures, sensitive data remains vulnerable to unauthorized access.
The Cost of Security Breaches
Security breaches can have devastating consequences for businesses, including revenue loss, competitive disadvantages, and even bankruptcy. For example, Nortel Networks attributed its bankruptcy to a security breach that resulted in stolen business plans, R&D reports, and employee emails.
Military IoT: A Unique Challenge
Military IoT presents its own set of security challenges. These devices operate in resource-constrained environments, often requiring long-term uptime and the ability to make autonomous decisions. Ensuring the integrity and security of military IoT systems is essential for maintaining national defense.
Security Principles for IoT
The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has outlined strategic principles to enhance IoT security:
- Incorporate Security at the Design Phase: Building security into IoT devices during the design phase is more effective and cost-efficient than retrofitting security later.
- Promote Security Updates and Vulnerability Management: Regular updates and patch management are crucial to address vulnerabilities as they emerge.
- Build on Recognized Security Practices: IoT security can draw from existing IT security practices, adapting them to IoT’s unique challenges.
- Prioritize Security Measures by Impact: Focus security efforts on areas with the potential for significant consequences in the event of a breach.
- Promote Transparency: Awareness and collaboration among stakeholders are vital for identifying and mitigating IoT threats.
The rise of IoT devices is inexorable, offering great promise but also significant risks. As we continue to embrace IoT technologies, it is imperative that we prioritize security at every level, from personal devices to military systems. Implementing comprehensive security measures, complying with regulations, and fostering collaboration will be key to safeguarding our future in an increasingly interconnected world. By doing so, we can enjoy the benefits of IoT while mitigating the risks to personal safety, privacy, and national security.
FBI recommends following measures for Protection and Defense
- Reboot devices regularly, as most malware is stored in memory and removed upon a device reboot. It is important to do this regularly as many actors compete for the same pool of devices and use automated scripts to identify vulnerabilities and infect devices.
- Change default usernames and passwords.
- Use anti-virus regularly and ensure it is up to date.
- Ensure all IoT devices are up to date and security patches are incorporated.
- Configure network firewalls to block traffic from unauthorized IP addresses and disable port forwarding.
Isolate IoT devices from other network connections.
Building Security in from the Bottom Up
Knowing no one single control is going to adequately protect a device, how do we apply what we have learned over the past 25 years to implement security in a variety of scenarios? We do so through a multi-layered approach to security that starts at the beginning when power is applied, establishes a trusted computing
Secure booting: When power is first introduced to the device, the authenticity and integrity of the software on the device is verified using cryptographically generated digital signatures.
Access control: Next, different forms of resource and access control are applied. Mandatory or role-based access controls built into the operating system limit the privileges of device components and applications so they access only the resources they need to do their jobs.
Device authentication: When the device is plugged into the network, it should authenticate itself prior to receiving or transmitting data.
Firewalling and IPS: The device also needs a firewall or deep packet inspection capability to control traffic that is destined to terminate at the device. The industry-specific protocol filtering and deep packet inspection capabilities are needed to identify malicious payloads hiding in non-IT protocols.
Updates and patches: Once the device is in operation, it will start receiving hot patches and software updates. Software updates and security patches must be delivered in a way that conserves the limited bandwidth and intermittent connectivity of an embedded device and absolutely eliminates the possibility of compromising functional safety
DHS’s Strategic principles for securing IOT
DHS has set forth principles designed to improve security of IoT across the full range of design, manufacturing, and deployment activities.
Incorporate Security at the Design Phase: Building security in at the design phase reduces potential disruptions and avoids the much more difficult and expensive endeavor of attempting to add security to products after they have been developed and deployed. DHS recommends enabling security by default through unique, hard to crack default user names and passwords, Build the device using the most recent operating system that is technically viable and economically feasible, Use hardware that incorporates security features to strengthen the protection and integrity of the device, and Design with system and operational disruption in mind.
Promote Security Updates and Vulnerability Management: Even when security is included at the design stage, vulnerabilities may be discovered in products after they have been deployed. These
flaws can be mitigated through patching, security updates, and vulnerability management strategies.
Build on Recognized Security Practices: Many tested practices used in traditional IT and network security can be applied to IoT. These approaches can help identify vulnerabilities, detect irregularities, respond to potential incidents, and recover from damage or disruption to IoT devices.
Prioritize Security Measures According to Potential Impact: Focusing on the potential consequences of disruption, breach, or malicious activity across the consumer spectrum is therefore critical in determining where particular security efforts should be directed, and who is best able to mitigate significant consequences.
Promote Transparency across IoT: Increased awareness could help manufacturers and industrial consumers identify where and how to apply security measures or build in redundancies. Depending on the risk profile of the product in question, developers, manufacturers, and service providers will be better equipped to appropriately mitigate threats and vulnerabilities as expeditiously as possible, whether through patching, product recall, or consumer advisory.
“Widespread adoption of these strategic principles and the associated suggested practices would dramatically improve the security posture of IoT.”
IoT Security Market
The global IoT Security Market size is projected to grow from USD 20.9 billion in 2023 to USD 59.2 billion by 2028 at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 23.1% during the forecast period. This growth is fueled by a rapid increase in the number of Industry 4.0 IoT security incidents stressing the need to strengthen cyber resilience, IoT vulnerabilities opening up new possibilities to hackers, a growing number of IoT security regulations, and rising security concerns for critical infrastructure.
Restraint: Growing Variants of IoT Threats and Limited Awareness
The proliferation of IoT devices in our daily lives has led to a surge in new variants of threats targeting these devices. Botnets, in particular, are evolving rapidly and pose a significant challenge. For example, a variant of the Mirai malware family known as Miori is actively targeting IoT devices, seeking to incorporate them into larger botnets for launching Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attacks. Other offspring of Mirai, like Shinoa, APEP, and IZ1H9, also exploit the same Remote Code Execution (RCE) vulnerability to compromise open-source-based machines. This trend is exacerbated by a general lack of awareness among users and manufacturers regarding IoT security risks.
Opportunity: 5G Networks Driving IoT Innovation
The advent of 5G networks presents a substantial opportunity to propel a new wave of IoT applications. The low latency and high bandwidth capabilities of 5G, combined with Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC), are revolutionizing various industries. In smart factories, 5G optimizes production processes, while in remote environments like mines and connected vehicles, it enables novel use cases such as remote monitoring, visual inspection, and autonomous operations. Additionally, 5G facilitates seamless machine-to-machine (M2M) communication, enhancing safety and efficiency across industries. It also promises improved global healthcare access by connecting patients and doctors worldwide. This technology is poised to transform daily living and working by enabling richer and smarter IoT applications.
Challenge: Lack of IoT Protocol Standardization
A significant challenge in the IoT landscape is the absence of standardized protocols. IoT encompasses a vast array of devices, each with its unique hardware, platforms, and vendors. This diversity results in interoperability issues among devices, sensors, and remote servers. Achieving seamless M2M communication requires unifying these standards to make IoT interactions user-friendly and flexible. Several associations and organizations are actively addressing this challenge by developing interoperability standards, such as MTConnect, Ethernet for Control Automation Technology (EtherCAT), and MCS-DCS Interface Standardization. The goal is to create a cohesive IoT ecosystem that fosters compatibility and innovation across various domains.
Market Ecosystem Overview
The IoT security market is characterized by the presence of prominent and well-established companies that offer robust software and solutions. These companies have a track record of operating in the market for many years and boast diversified product portfolios, cutting-edge technologies, and extensive global sales and marketing networks. Notable players in this ecosystem include Microsoft (US), AWS (US), Google (US), IBM (US), Intel (US), Cisco (US), Ericsson (Sweden), Thales (France), Allot (Israel), Infineon (Germany), Atos (France), among others.
Key Segment: Identity and Access Management (IAM)
Among the various solutions offered in the IoT security market, Identity and Access Management (IAM) is anticipated to hold the largest market share during the forecast period. IAM solutions are pivotal in ensuring data confidentiality and authorized control over connected devices within IoT networks. With the expanding presence of IoT across diverse industries, it becomes imperative to tailor security measures to meet the specific requirements of each sector. As the number of IoT deployments rises, so does the frequency of cyberattacks targeting these networks. IoT security solutions address these concerns through a range of measures, including identity and access control management, device authentication and management, and PKI lifecycle management, among others. These solutions play a crucial role in upholding the integrity and protection of IoT systems.
Regional Growth: Asia Pacific Leads
In terms of regional growth, the Asia Pacific region is poised to exhibit the highest Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) during the forecast period. This growth is attributed to the increasing adoption of IoT devices, driven by the proactive strategies of key industry players aimed at enhancing business performance and fostering collaboration. Organizations across various sectors, regardless of their size, heavily rely on vendors and integrators to provide Information and Communications Technology (ICT) solutions and services. IoT technologies are instrumental in supporting their operations and achieving business objectives. However, the integration of technology into every facet of modern life has introduced new security risks, including a rise in ransomware attacks within the IoT ecosystem. Meeting stringent regulatory requirements and adhering to rigorous security measures are expected to fuel market growth. Presently, North America plays a significant role in the global IoT security market due to widespread IoT adoption across multiple applications and the initiatives undertaken by the US Government.
References and Resources also include:
The major players in the IoT Security market are Microsoft (US), AWS (US), Google (US), IBM (US), Intel (US), Cisco (US), Ericsson (Sweden), Thales (France), Allot (Israel), Infenion (Germany), Atos (France), etc. These players have adopted various growth strategies, such as partnerships, agreements and collaborations, new product launches and enhancements, and acquisitions to expand their footprint in the IoT Security market.