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Extreme Space Weather and High Altitude Nuclear Detonations: The Imperative for Real-Time Space Weather Forecasting and Response

In the vast expanse of the cosmos, Earth’s position in the solar system exposes it to a myriad of celestial phenomena, some of which pose a considerable threat to our technological infrastructure. Space weather, a term that may sound unfamiliar to many, refers to variations in the space environment between the sun and Earth, extending throughout the solar system. These variations have the potential to disrupt the technology that underpins a country’s economic vitality and national security.

Critical infrastructure, including satellite and airline operations, communications networks, navigation systems, and the electric power grid, can all be severely impacted by space weather events. Another is the man-made threat of high-altitude nuclear detonations which is equally menacing. As we delve into the intricacies of space weather and HAND threat and its implications, it becomes evident that real-time space weather forecasting and response strategies are paramount.

The Sun’s Fiery Arsenal: Extreme Space Weather

The sun, the life-giving star at the center of our solar system, occasionally unleashes a barrage of charged particles and energy in what scientists refer to as solar storms or solar flares. These eruptions can trigger extreme space weather events, the effects of which can cascade to Earth.

The sun’s differential rotation, with varying rotation periods at the equator and poles, results in the twisting and untwisting of its magnetic field lines. When the field is most twisted, it breaks through the visible surface, causing sunspots, flares, and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). This is called solar maximum (solar max for short), the time of greatest solar activity. When the field is smooth, there are few or no sunspots, and the solar activity is at a minimum (solar minimum or solar min).

Solar flare” means a brief eruption of intense energy on or near the Sun’s surface that is typically associated with sunspots.”Solar energetic particles” means ions and electrons ejected from the Sun that are typically associated with solar eruptions. “Geomagnetic disturbance” means a temporary disturbance of Earth’s magnetic field resulting from solar activity.

The sun undergoes an approximately 11-year cycle characterized by alternating phases of heightened activity and relative calm. At the moment, the sun is in the process of transitioning towards its peak activity phase, which is anticipated to reach its zenith around the year 2025.

Solar Flares and Their Immediate Impact: Solar flares, characterized by intense energy eruptions on or near the sun’s surface, are a common aspect of space weather. These flares emit radio waves, X-rays, and relativistic electrons and protons. The X-rays reach Earth in just eight minutes, causing ionization in the upper atmosphere and potentially disrupting communication systems. This swift propagation leaves little to no warning time.

Solar flares exert an immediate impact on high-frequency (HF) radio communications through ionization within Earth’s ionosphere’s D layer, primarily induced by prompt X-rays. Additionally, flares can generate enduring effects by elevating the upper atmosphere’s temperature through substantial bursts of UV-extreme ultraviolet radiation. This heightened atmospheric temperature contributes to increased drag on orbiting satellites, influencing their orbital dynamics.

Solar flares are often accompanied by intense radio bursts that can disrupt GPS navigation systems, hamper communications, and interfere with radar operations. An illustrative incident took place on December 6, 2006, following the impulsive phase of a flare, resulting in a 20-minute GPS outage and disruptions in cell phone reception. These disturbances pose substantial challenges, particularly in the context of the growing use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and the safety of aircraft during landing procedures. The prediction of solar flares remains an active research area, benefiting from advancements such as the ability to monitor far-side solar activity using NASA’s Stereo spacecraft and helioseismology techniques.

Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs): Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) are primarily composed of protons, although they can also include electrons and heavier ions. These particles can have a wide range of energies, typically spanning from a few tens of thousands of electron volts (eV) to over 1 GeV (giga-electronvolts).  SEPs consist of protons with energies of up to 1 GeV and represent a radiation hazard for both astronauts and polar flights.

SEPs can originate from solar flares or Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and have the potential to reach Earth within a mere 10 minutes of a flare event. Their entry into Earth’s vicinity is governed by the interplay of velocity (v) and the magnetic field (B) forces in the geomagnetic field.

These particles pose radiation hazards to astronauts, especially during space missions, and can affect satellite electronics, communication systems, and even polar flight routes. Space weather affects the radiation doses that airline pilots and passengers receive, especially with transpolar flights.

Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs): Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are massive eruptions of solar material that propagate outward from the Sun at speeds of approximately 1000 kilometers per second. These events are often associated with solar flares and typically take between two to four days to reach Earth. When CMEs interact with our planet, they have the potential to generate magnetospheric storms, which can impact various aspects of our space environment.

To penetrate Earth’s protective magnetic shield, CMEs are typically funneled down through the polar regions or gain entry through magnetic field line reconnection. The influx of this additional plasma mass can exert forces on the magnetosphere, causing it to stretch away from the Sun. When magnetic field lines eventually break and snap back, they can accelerate electrons and protons to energies as high as 80,000 electronvolts, ushering in what is known as a geomagnetic storm.

While most CMEs miss Earth, those that do make contact can distort our planet’s magnetosphere, leading to geomagnetic storms with potentially adverse effects on power grids, radiation belts, and ionospheric communication conditions. These storms can induce electric currents in power lines, disrupt satellite communications, and jeopardize GPS accuracy.

To assess the severity of CMEs and their potential impact on Earth, it is crucial to determine whether they will directly strike our planet and what the orientation of the magnetic field within the CME is. Southerly-oriented magnetic fields within CMEs can lead to greater compression of Earth’s magnetic field when they interact, affecting power systems, radiation belts, and ionospheric communication conditions. Additionally, CMEs have the potential to serve as progenitors for Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs), which are high-energy protons that can pose risks to astronauts, satellites, and terrestrial systems.


Impacts on Satellites

The Van Allen belts, named after their discoverer, represent regions within Earth’s magnetosphere where high-energy protons and electrons become trapped by the planet’s magnetic field. These radiation belts are of significant concern to scientists and engineers due to their potential to damage spacecraft electronics, especially when solar eruptions send bursts of particles toward Earth.

A more comprehensive understanding of the dynamic behavior of these belts is essential as it can aid spacecraft design to withstand the harsh radiation environment. The data collected from these measurements also contributes to a better comprehension of space weather phenomena surrounding our planet. Extreme space weather events can amplify radiation within the Van Allen belts, inducing electrical currents that might jeopardize terrestrial power grids, putting Earth at risk of incurring trillions of dollars in damages.

Solar energetic particles represent another space weather factor that indirectly influences spacecraft and electronic equipment. These particles provoke charge buildup within semiconductor materials, leading to malfunctions in critical electronic systems. The exposure of spacecraft to solar energetic particle events and radiation belt enhancements can result in temporary operational anomalies, damage to vital electronics, degradation of solar arrays, and impairment of optical systems such as imagers and star trackers.

All satellite systems can be impacted encompassing a wide range of functions, including power generation through solar arrays and batteries, payload operation, telemetry (including high-power communications), position and attitude control, and propulsion.

The significance of satellite disruptions, or anomalies, cannot be overstated, as satellites serve as the foundation of our modern technological civilization. They underpin various crucial aspects of our daily lives, including communication, timekeeping, navigation, transportation, agriculture, wildlife management, and monitoring for natural disasters and climate conditions.

Consequently, safeguarding these satellite systems from the adverse effects of space weather is paramount to ensuring the reliability and functionality of the services they provide to humanity.



SpaceX faced a setback in February 2021 when a geomagnetic storm caused the loss of 40 Starlink satellites.However, the company swiftly responded to this challenge by implementing a series of measures to enhance the resilience of its satellite constellation. SpaceX introduced hardware upgrades, including more robust solar panels and batteries, to ensure that its satellites can withstand the rigors of space weather. Additional shielding was incorporated into the satellite design to protect against damaging radiation, while innovative software solutions allow the satellites to autonomously navigate and avoid hazardous space weather conditions.

Moreover, SpaceX strategically adjusted the orbital altitudes of its satellites to minimize susceptibility to geomagnetic storms. By placing them in higher orbits, these satellites are less susceptible to the adverse effects of geomagnetic storms.

Alongside these technical advancements, the company is also investing in improving its space weather forecasting capabilities to enable proactive measures in protecting its satellite assets. This incident has become a catalyst for SpaceX to strengthen its Starlink network against space weather and other challenges, reflecting its commitment to innovation and progress in the commercial space industry.

The incident highlights the hazards faced by numerous companies planning to put tens of thousands of small satellites in orbit to provide internet service from space. And it’s possible that more solar outbursts will knock some of these newly deployed orbital transmitters out of the sky.

Mars Missions

Space weather plays a crucial role in shaping our ambitions for Mars exploration and potential colonization. NASA emphasizes the significance of space weather considerations in deep-space and extended-duration missions, where both spacecraft and crew members no longer benefit from the protective shield of Earth’s magnetic fields. These missions are particularly vulnerable to adverse radiation impacts, presenting a challenge for the long-term health of astronauts and the reliability of spacecraft electronics and software. In light of these challenges, NASA acknowledges that radiation and space weather management are pivotal components of its Mars exploration plans.

The Impact of Space Weather on Earth

Space weather events can have profound consequences on our planet’s infrastructure and systems. Strong electrical currents driven along the Earth’s surface during auroral events disrupt electric power grids and contribute to the corrosion of oil and gas pipelines. Changes in the ionosphere during geomagnetic storms interfere with high-frequency radio communications and Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation.

Power Grid Vulnerability: High voltages induced by rapid changes in Earth’s magnetic field can disrupt long power lines, causing power grid outages. In severe cases, they can even damage power transformers and trigger large-scale blackouts, as seen in the 1989 Quebec blackout.

Transportation Disruptions: Navigation and switching problems in transportation systems, including air traffic control and GPS, can be caused by ionosphere disturbances during geomagnetic storms. Transpolar flight routes may need to be rerouted or canceled due to radiation fluxes resulting from space weather events.

Communication and Radar Interference: Space weather can interfere with various communication systems, including GPS, cell phones, and radar reception. Radio bursts associated with solar flares can disrupt signals and affect aircraft navigation.

Auroral Displays: While not necessarily a hazard, intense space weather events can produce spectacular aurorae visible at lower latitudes than usual, showcasing the captivating side of space weather.


Military Impacts

Scintillation, which occurs primarily at night during both quiet and active periods, poses challenges dependent on the solar radio flux (F10.7). It can disrupt satellite and HF communication, which is particularly problematic for real-time targeting that relies on instant communication. Higher bandwidth systems are more vulnerable to its effects. Elevated levels of X-rays and solar energetic particles (SEPs) can result in communication loss at high latitudes due to polar cap absorption events. Additionally, radio bursts directly interfere with GPS, communications, and radar systems.

Ionosphere disturbances can degrade GPS systems, impacting Department of Defense (DoD) systems that heavily rely on GPS receivers for precision-guided munitions and reducing collateral damage. Accurate GPS fixes are essential for such systems.

Geomagnetic storms, a common consequence of space weather, lead to degraded geolocation and reduced accuracy in electron density profiles and Total Electron Content (TEC). This can result in geolocation errors, hampering surveillance and intelligence applications and causing issues like false returns, false targeting, radar blindness, and interference with multiple HF systems. Satellite communications also suffer from signal interference and loss during these events.

Satellite anomalies, often characterized by failures to perform or operate correctly, stem from two primary sources: surface charging and deep-dielectric charging. Surface charging can produce electrostatic discharges (ESDs) and arcing on solar arrays and power cables, potentially affecting sensitive spacecraft electronics through radiation or conduction. Deep dielectric charging, on the other hand, can lead to internal arcing within spacecraft due to high-energy particles or ionizing radiation penetrating surface materials. These charging effects can cause transient disruptions like single event upsets (SEUs), which may flip bits in electronics or produce Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)-induced spurious commands, as well as more permanent damage such as microchannel plate (MCP) burnouts, arcs, and ESDs that could damage electronics or cause power and solar array failures. While transient effects are more common, the permanent nature of the latter category makes them especially detrimental to satellite operation.

Timely space weather forecasting is of paramount importance across various domains, including aviation, ground-based technical systems’ protection, manned space flights, and the launch of scientific and commercial satellites. Accurate predictions are essential for mitigating the disruptive effects of space weather and ensuring the safety and functionality of critical systems and operations.


The Menace from Above: High-Altitude Nuclear Detonations

On a more terrestrial front, the threat posed by high-altitude nuclear detonations is equally ominous. These detonations, when carried out at high altitudes in Earth’s atmosphere, can unleash an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) with the potential to fry electronic circuits across vast regions. Imagine the instantaneous loss of communication, navigation, and power systems over a widespread area. The effects of an EMP event are not limited to the ground. Satellites orbiting in the affected region could also fall victim to the destructive power of EMP, rendering them inoperable.

The threat posed by High Altitude Nuclear Detonation or Explosion (HAND or HANE) significantly exacerbates space weather concerns. When HANE events occur, they emit highly energetic gamma rays, constituting approximately 5% of the overall energy yield, which propagate at the speed of light. These gamma rays interact with neutral particles in the upper atmosphere, giving rise to the Compton Effect and generating a cascade of energetic electrons and ions.

These charged particles exhibit a gyrating motion and become ensnared by Earth’s magnetic field. Consequently, they contribute to the formation of an energetic radiation belt encircling our planet. The detrimental impact of this radiation belt on space assets, particularly Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites, is well-documented. Even relatively small-scale HAND events, with explosive yields ranging from approximately 10 to 20 kilotons at altitudes between 125 and 300 kilometers, can result in a staggering amplification of radiation flux, increasing it by three to four orders of magnitude within the inner radiation belts. This heightened radiation environment poses a dire threat, with the potential to cause the loss of up to 90% of LEO satellites within just one month.

In a world heavily reliant on satellite-based technologies for everything from weather forecasting to global communication, such a scenario is nothing short of catastrophic. The importance of strengthening defenses against potential electromagnetic pulse (EMP) attacks on critical infrastructure is a global concern. Recent assessments indicate that the United States is making strides in fortifying its vital systems against such threats, with projected readiness by 2032. This development underscores the evolving landscape of global security, prompting nations worldwide to consider enhancing their defenses to ensure the resilience of essential infrastructure in the face of EMP risks.

The Solution: Real-Time Space Weather Forecasting and Response

The gravity of these threats demands proactive measures to protect our ground, air, and space assets. The linchpin to effective mitigation is real-time space weather forecasting and response.

1. Advanced Space Weather Monitoring: A network of ground and space-based observatories continuously monitors the sun’s activities, tracking solar flares, CMEs, and other solar disturbances. This data forms the foundation of space weather forecasting.

2. Predictive Modeling: Complex computer models use the observed data to predict the trajectory and impact of solar storms. These models enable us to anticipate when and where space weather events will strike.

3. Early Warning Systems: An essential component of space weather preparedness is the development of early warning systems. These systems provide advance notice to operators of critical infrastructure, allowing them to take protective measures, such as temporarily shutting down sensitive systems or rerouting satellite communications.

4. Hardening Infrastructure: Designing and retrofitting critical infrastructure, including power grids, military installations, and satellite systems, to withstand the effects of extreme space weather and EMP events is crucial. This involves incorporating shielding, surge protection, and backup systems.

5. Satellite Resilience: Satellites must be equipped with shielding and backup systems to withstand space weather and EMP events. Additionally, satellite constellations with redundancy can ensure that critical services remain operational.

6. International Collaboration: Space weather knows no borders, and international cooperation is essential. Collaborative efforts enable the sharing of data and resources for more accurate forecasting and coordinated responses.

Space Weather Sensors

Scientists employ an array of ground- and space-based sensors and imaging systems to observe solar activity across different layers of the solar atmosphere. Telescopes are utilized to detect various forms of electromagnetic radiation, including visible light, ultraviolet light, gamma rays, and X rays. Additionally, receivers and transmitters are employed to monitor radio shock waves generated when a Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) collides with the solar wind, creating shock waves. Particle detectors count ions and electrons, while magnetometers record changes in magnetic fields. UV and visible cameras observe auroral patterns above Earth’s surface.

Ground stations:

  • Ground-Based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS): A network of three ground-based telescopes operated by the US Space Force. GEODSS is used to track satellites and other objects in orbit, including space weather sensors.
  • Space Weather Monitoring Network (SWMN): A global network of ground-based instruments operated by NOAA. SWMN monitors the solar wind, the Earth’s magnetic field, and other space weather parameters.
  • Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG): A global network of six ground-based telescopes that monitor the sun. GONG provides high-resolution images of the sun’s surface, which can be used to study solar activity and predict space weather events.


  • Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES): A series of satellites operated by NOAA that monitor the Earth’s atmosphere, land, and oceans. GOES also carries a number of instruments to monitor space weather, including the Solar Ultraviolet Imager (SUVI) and the Extreme Ultraviolet and X-ray Irradiance Sensors (EXIS).
  • Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR): A satellite operated by NOAA and NASA that monitors the Earth’s environment and space weather. DSCOVR carries a number of instruments, including the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) and the Plasma Instrumentation for Climate and Weather (PlasMAG).
  • Space Weather Follow-On (SWFO): A satellite mission in development by NOAA that will provide real-time measurements of the solar wind and other space weather parameters. SWFO is scheduled to launch in 2025.


  • Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST): A 4-meter optical telescope on Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii. DKIST is the largest solar telescope in the world and is used to study the sun in high detail.
  • Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO): A NASA satellite that monitors the sun in a number of wavelengths. SDO provides real-time images and movies of the sun, which can be used to study solar activity and predict space weather events.
  • Parker Solar Probe: A NASA spacecraft that is currently orbiting the sun. Parker Solar Probe will fly through the sun’s corona and provide unprecedented measurements of the solar wind and other space weather parameters.

These are just a few examples of the many ground stations, satellites, and telescopes that are monitoring space weather. Scientists and engineers are constantly developing new and improved instruments to monitor the space environment and predict space weather events. By improving our ability to monitor and predict space weather, we can better protect our critical infrastructure and technology from the devastating consequences of extreme space weather events.

Research on Extreme Space Weather and Its Impact

Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), powerful solar eruptions, are significant sources of space weather events with the potential to disrupt Earth’s technology and communication systems. Understanding and forecasting these events are essential due to their capacity to cause geomagnetic storms.

Researchers, including those from Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology (Skoltech), Karl-Franzens University of Graz, Kanzelhöhe Observatory, Jet Propulsion Laboratory of California Institute of Technology, and Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, have developed a method to study fast Coronal Mass Ejections, which are known to cause extreme space weather events. They found that the most intense geomagnetic storms occurred when fast CMEs interacted with others in clusters, particularly when they originated from the same active region of the Sun.

These findings shed light on the dynamics of solar eruptions and their potential impact on Earth. Understanding these characteristics is crucial for space weather prediction and safeguarding technology and society from the global hazards of extreme space weather. The research also holds applications in various geophysical events, from floods to earthquakes, and interdisciplinary fields like hydrology, telecommunications, finance, and environmental studies.

U.S. Space Weather Policy: Preparing for Extreme Space Weather

Space weather presents a unique global challenge, distinct from terrestrial weather phenomena such as hurricanes. Its potential to simultaneously impact vast geographic regions, including North America, underscores the need for a comprehensive, cross-sector approach to preparedness. The United States is committed to minimizing economic losses and human suffering resulting from space weather events through collaboration among government entities, emergency management, academia, media, insurance, non-profits, and the private sector.

Crucially, the federal government’s strategy includes four key components:

  1. Predict and Detect: The government must possess the capability to predict and detect space weather events, laying the foundation for timely response.
  2. Alert and Mitigate: Plans and programs are essential to alert both the public and private sectors about impending space weather events, enabling mitigation efforts to protect critical infrastructure.
  3. Protection and Mitigation: Rigorous protocols, standards, and protective measures must be in place to reduce risks to vital infrastructure during credible space weather threats.
  4. Response and Recovery: The ability to respond effectively and recover from the impacts of space weather is vital, necessitating coordinated efforts among executive departments and agencies.

National Space Weather Strategy’s Strategic Goals

The National Space Weather Strategy outlines six high-level strategic goals to enhance the nation’s readiness for space weather impacts:

  1. Establish Benchmarks for Space-Weather Events: Define standards for space weather events to assess their potential impacts.
  2. Enhance Response and Recovery Capabilities: Strengthen the nation’s capacity to respond swiftly and recover from space weather events.
  3. Improve Protection and Mitigation Efforts: Develop and implement measures to safeguard critical infrastructure from space weather threats.
  4. Improve Assessment, Modeling, and Prediction of Impacts on Critical Infrastructure: Advance capabilities to assess, model, and predict the effects of space weather on critical infrastructure.
  5. Improve Space-Weather Services through Advancing Understanding and Forecasting: Enhance space weather forecasting and understanding to provide more effective services.
  6. Increase International Cooperation: Foster collaboration on space weather preparedness and response at the international level.

USAF’s Focus on Space Weather

In a recent analysis, the United States Air Force identified monitoring charged particles from space as a high-priority weather-related initiative. The capability to monitor these particles is anticipated to be essential by 2021.

The Energetic Charged Particle sensor plays a key role in monitoring space radiation, helping assess threats to Earth and space systems due to space weather degradation. All new satellite programs are mandated to incorporate this sensor, with prototypes expected in fiscal year 2018. Data collected by these sensors will support the Joint Space Operations Center, the central hub for military space operations within the Department of Defense.

Additionally, the Air Force is investing $60 million in a program to detect changes in the ionosphere using ground radars. The Next Generation Ionosonde program comprises three ground-based radar installations, with completion scheduled for 2022.


The potential threats posed by extreme space weather events and high-altitude nuclear detonations are not the stuff of science fiction; they are tangible dangers that require proactive measures. Real-time space weather forecasting, early warning systems, and the resilience of our infrastructure and assets are our best defenses against these formidable challenges.

In a world where our daily lives, national security, and the global economy are increasingly dependent on technology, safeguarding against space weather and EMP threats is not a luxury; it is a necessity. As we continue to explore and exploit the boundless frontier of space, we must also be vigilant protectors of our assets both on Earth and in the heavens above.




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