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Majorana Fermions: A New Class of Robust Qubits for Quantum Computing


Quantum computing has emerged as a transformative field with the potential to revolutionize various industries and scientific research. One of the key challenges in developing practical quantum computers lies in the fragile nature of qubits, the basic units of quantum information. However, recent advancements in the field have introduced a promising solution in the form of Majorana fermions, a new class of qubits that exhibit remarkable stability and error resistance. In this article, we will explore the fascinating world of Majorana fermions and their potential to shape the future of quantum computing.

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Understanding Qubits and the Challenges

Qubits are the fundamental building blocks of quantum computers, analogous to classical bits but with the ability to exist in superpositions of states. This characteristic grants quantum computers the potential to solve complex problems exponentially faster than classical computers. However, qubits are extremely sensitive to external disturbances, such as temperature fluctuations and electromagnetic interference, leading to the loss of quantum information in a phenomenon known as decoherence.

To address this challenge, researchers have been exploring various types of qubits, such as those based on trapped ions, superconducting circuits, and topological properties. Among these, Majorana fermions have garnered significant attention due to their unique properties and potential for robust qubit implementation.


Introduction to Particle Physics

There are two classes of ‘particles’ in the universe – Fermions and Bosons. In particle physics, fermions are a class of elementary particles that includes electrons, protons, neutrons, and quarks, all of which make up the building blocks of matter. They include all elementary particles (Quarks, Leptons, Guage Bosons, Static Bosons etc.), but also composite particles like Baryons (Eg: Protons, Neutrons, etc.). The scheme of Quantum Field Theory is that Fermions interact by exchanging Bosons.


All fermions have half-integer multiple spins (ie 1/2, 3/2, 5/2…). Fermions are subject to Pauli Exclusion Principle which states that no particle can exist in the same state in the same place at the same time. Thus Fermions are solitary. Only one Fermion may occupy any quantum state – the Fermionic solitariness of electrons is responsible for the structure of molecular matter (in fact for all ‘structure’ in the universe).


All bosons have either zero spin or an even integer spin.  Bosons are gregarious. Bosons may occupy the exact same quantum state as other bosons, as for example in the case of laser light which is formed of coherent, overlapping photons. In fact, the more bosons there are in a state the more likely that another boson will join that state (Bose condensation).


Examples of bosons include fundamental particles such as photons, gluons, and W and Z bosons (the four force-carrying gauge bosons of the Standard Model), the Higgs boson, and the still-theoretical graviton of quantum gravity; composite particles (e.g. mesons and stable nuclei of even mass number such as deuterium (with one proton and one neutron, mass number = 2), helium-4, or lead-208); and some quasiparticles (e.g. Cooper pairs, plasmons, and phonons).


Fermions are usually associated with matter while Bosons are the force carriers. Whether the fermions combine to form a table, a star, a human body, a flower or do not combine at all depend on the elementary forces – the electromagnetic, the gravitational, the weak and the strong forces. According to the Standard Model all force is mediated by exchange of (gauge) bosons. The electromagnetic force is mediated by exchange of photons, the strong force by exchange of gluons while the weak force is mediated by exchange of W and Z bosons.


For the most part, Fermions particles are considered Dirac fermions, after the English physicist Paul Dirac, who first predicted that all fermionic fundamental particles should have a counterpart, somewhere in the universe, in the form of an antiparticle — essentially, an identical twin of opposite charge


But there is another possible category of particles, the so-called anyons. Anyons are predicted to arise inside materials small enough to confine the electronic state wave function, as they emerge from the collective dance of many interacting electrons.


One of these is named Majorana zero mode, anyonic cousins to the Majorana fermions proposed by Ettore Majorana in 1937. Majoranas, as these hypothetical anyons are affectionally called, are predicted to exhibit numerous exotic properties, such as simultaneously behaving like a particle and antiparticle, allowing mutual annihilation, and the capability to hide quantum information by encoding it nonlocally in space. The latter property specifically holds the promise of resilient quantum computing.


Introducing Majorana Fermions

Majorana fermions are exotic quasiparticles predicted by the Italian physicist Ettore Majorana in 1937. These particles are their own antiparticles, meaning they are identical to their antimatter counterpart. In condensed matter physics, Majorana fermions can arise at the boundaries of certain topological superconductors, where they possess intriguing properties that make them ideal candidates for stable qubits.


If they could be harnessed, Majorana fermions would be ideal as qubits, or individual computational units for quantum computers. The idea is that a qubit would be made of combinations of pairs of Majorana fermions, each of which would be separated from its partner. If noise errors affect one member of the pair, the other should remain unaffected, thereby preserving the integrity of the qubit and enabling it to correctly carry out a computation.


Robustness and Error Resistance

One of the key advantages of Majorana fermions as qubits is their inherent robustness against external noise and decoherence. Unlike other types of qubits, Majorana fermions are protected by a phenomenon called “topological protection.” This protection arises from the nonlocal properties of the Majorana wavefunctions, making them less susceptible to local perturbations that commonly affect other qubit implementations.

Additionally, Majorana qubits possess a property known as “non-Abelian statistics.” This property allows for the creation of topological quantum gates, which are highly desirable for fault-tolerant quantum computing. Non-Abelian anyons, such as Majorana fermions, can be manipulated in a way that their quantum states are immune to local errors, making them robust against a wide range of noise sources.


Scientists have looked for Majorana fermions in semiconductors, the materials used in conventional, transistor-based computing. In their experiments, researchers have combined semiconductors with superconductors — materials through which electrons can travel without resistance. This combination imparts superconductive properties to conventional semiconductors, which physicists believe should induce particles in the semiconductor to split , forming the pair of  Majorana fermions.


Realizing Majorana Fermions in the Lab

While the theoretical foundations for Majorana fermions have been established for decades, experimental realization has been a significant challenge. However, recent breakthroughs have demonstrated the creation and manipulation of Majorana fermions in various systems, such as semiconductor nanowires coupled to superconductors. These experiments provide promising evidence of the feasibility of Majorana-based qubits.


Since 2010, many research groups have raced to find Majoranas. Unlike fundamental particles, such as the electron or the photon, which naturally exist in a vacuum, Majorana anyons need to be created inside hybrid materials. One of the most promising platforms for realizing them is based on hybrid superconductor-semiconductor nanodevices. Over the past decade, these devices have been studied with excruciating detail, with the hope of unambiguously proving the existence of Majoranas. However, Majoranas are tricky entities, easily overlooked or mistaken with other quantum states.


Physicists at MIT  observed evidence of Majorana fermions

In 2020, a team led by researchers at MIT observed evidence of Majorana fermions in a material system they designed and fabricated. The system consists of gold nanowires grown on a superconducting material called vanadium, with small ferromagnetic “islands” of europium sulfide incorporated. By scanning the surface near the islands, the researchers observed signature signal spikes near zero energy that are believed to be generated by pairs of Majorana fermions.

The observation of Majorana fermions in a relatively simple material like gold represents a significant milestone. The researchers demonstrated that these fermions are present, stable, and scalable. The next step is to utilize these Majorana fermions as qubits, which would be a significant advancement towards practical quantum computing.

While several material platforms have shown evidence of Majorana particles, the semiconductor-based setups have been challenging to scale up for practical quantum computing due to the difficulties in growing precise crystals of semiconducting material. The advantage of using gold is that its surface state can be made superconductive, providing a clean and atomically precise system for observing Majorana fermions.

The research team grew a layer of superconducting vanadium and deposited nanowires of gold on top. The gold’s top layer was found to become superconductive when in proximity to the vanadium. Ferromagnetic islands of europium sulfide were then added to provide the necessary internal magnetic fields for creating the Majorana fermions. By applying a tiny voltage and using scanning tunneling microscopy, the researchers were able to scan the energy spectrum around each island and identify specific energy signatures consistent with Majorana fermions.

The observed spikes within the energy gap of the superconducting material confirmed the presence of pairs of Majorana fermions. These spikes were observed on opposite sides of several islands along the direction of the magnetic field, as predicted by theory.

The discovery of Majorana fermions in gold opens up possibilities for further research and development in the field of quantum computing. The unique properties of Majorana fermions make them promising candidates for stable and fault-tolerant qubits. This finding brings us closer to harnessing the potential of Majorana fermions for practical quantum computing applications.


In a new paper published in Nature, scientists have thrown further light into the mystery of Majorana physics.

In a recent publication in Nature, scientists have shed new light on the enigmatic realm of Majorana physics. By employing two different techniques simultaneously, they have made intriguing observations regarding the existence of Majorana states in a device.

The researchers applied Coulomb spectroscopy and tunneling spectroscopy to the same device, expecting to observe the telltale signatures of Majoranas. However, they were surprised to find that the states suggestive of Majoranas, seen through Coulomb spectroscopy, were not present when observed using tunneling spectroscopy.

To illustrate this paradoxical situation, the researchers offered a metaphorical scenario: Imagine you are searching for a legendary rock star named Majorana. Peering through one door of a bar, you see a concert where a captivating rock star dressed as Majorana performs the Majorana song. The bar is filled with adoring fans, seemingly confirming the presence of Majorana. However, when you open a large door at the far end of the bar, everyone, including the supposed rock star, rushes to leave. True rock stars, like the real Majorana, would never exit in such a manner.

The researchers explained that this behavior is precisely what makes Majoranas exceptional. Similar to a genuine rock star who remains on stage despite an available exit, Majorana anyons are bound to one side of a nanodevice due to the mathematical principle of topological protection. Even when regular electrons can escape through the opposite side, the Majorana anyons remain steadfast.

The scientists aimed to determine whether a Majorana was truly present or not. In their experimental setup, the doors symbolize tunnel barriers through which electrons are sent in and out. There is a drain door and a source door. When both spectroscopy methodologies were employed simultaneously, the researchers discovered that their supposed Majorana rock star was, in fact, a different type of quasi-particle. Although these quasi-particles are intriguing superconductors in their own right, they are not Majoranas.

This study highlights the abundance of convincing Majorana impostors that can exist in various device types, capable of deceiving individual measurement strategies. By combining multiple measurement techniques on the same device, the researchers uncovered the impostor through an apparent paradox. This approach could significantly reduce ambiguity in interpreting future experiments, bringing us one step closer to capturing the elusive Majorana and harnessing its potential power.

Applications and Future Prospects

The development of Majorana-based qubits holds immense promise for advancing quantum computing technology. The robustness of Majorana fermions opens up new avenues for error correction and fault-tolerant quantum computation, potentially overcoming the limitations of other qubit implementations. Furthermore, Majorana fermions could play a crucial role in the development of topological quantum computers, which are expected to provide even more significant computational advantages.

Beyond quantum computing, Majorana fermions have also found applications in other fields such as topological quantum information processing, fault-tolerant quantum memories, and the study of exotic condensed matter physics phenomena.


Majorana fermions represent a groundbreaking development in the quest for stable and error-resistant qubits for quantum computing. Their unique properties, such as topological protection and non-Abelian statistics, make them highly attractive candidates for the realization of fault-tolerant quantum computers. While challenges remain in scaling up and integrating Majorana qubits into large-scale quantum computing systems, recent experimental progress has laid a solid foundation for further exploration and development in this exciting field. With continued research and advancements, Majorana fermions may play a pivotal role in shaping the future of quantum computing and unlocking its vast potential.




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