The world of optics is constantly evolving, driven by the demand for advanced materials that can adapt to varying spectral ranges. Tunable optical materials (TOMs) have emerged as a groundbreaking solution, offering the ability to dynamically manipulate their optical properties for a wide range of applications. DARPA’s Accelerating discovery of Tunable Optical Materials (ATOM) program aims to revolutionize the field by discovering and developing fast-switching, tunable materials for multi-spectral applications. In this article, we will explore the properties, applications, and potential impact of these TOMs in various industries.
Understanding Tunable Optical Materials:
TOMs are a class of materials that exhibit the unique ability to alter their optical properties, such as refractive index, in response to external stimuli. Unlike conventional materials with fixed optical characteristics, TOMs offer versatility and adaptability, enabling real-time control over light transmission, reflection, absorption, and emission. This dynamic behavior opens up a world of possibilities for optical engineering and applications across different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Properties and Advantages of TOMs:
TOMs offer several key properties that make them highly desirable for a wide range of applications. Fast-switching speed is crucial for applications such as laser beam steering or correcting atmospheric turbulence in real-time. Tunability allows for precise control over optical characteristics, enabling the manipulation of light for specific purposes. The integration of TOMs with traditional foundry processes for production ensures scalability and compatibility with existing technologies. These properties collectively enable the creation of compact, lightweight, and energy-efficient optical devices for various industries.
Applications in Diverse Industries:
The impact of TOMs extends across multiple sectors, including defense, telecommunications, healthcare, and environmental monitoring. In the defense sector, fast-switching, tunable materials can enhance imaging platforms, enabling telescopes and drones to overcome image blur caused by air turbulence. Tunable optical filters can simplify hyperspectral imaging systems, facilitating remote chemical sensing, thermal imaging, and food security applications. In telecommunications, TOMs can improve signal processing and data transmission rates, leading to more efficient and reliable communication networks. Moreover, TOMs can revolutionize healthcare by enabling advanced optical diagnostics, non-invasive imaging, and targeted therapies. The environmental monitoring sector can benefit from TOMs in the development of highly sensitive sensors for pollution detection, climate studies, and resource exploration.
Pushing the Boundaries of Optical Material Science:
DARPA’s ATOM program focuses on discovering and developing tunable optical materials (TOMs) in the visible and mid- to long-wave infrared (MWIR/LWIR) bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. The program seeks to achieve dynamic optical functionality without the need for physical filtering or mechanical input.
The process of identifying novel optical materials with unique tunable properties has traditionally relied on intuitive design and first-principles simulations, such as density functional theory. However, this approach has proven to be inefficient, time-consuming, and limited by human intuition based on existing materials. It poses challenges in discovering entirely new materials with desired properties.
In recent years, other fields like pharmaceuticals, energetics, and advanced functional materials have transitioned from intuition-based discovery methods to more systematic approaches. They have embraced data science and learning-based techniques to accelerate material discovery and development. Recognizing the potential of these approaches, DARPA’s ATOM program aims to leverage similar methodologies to rapidly discover new optical materials. By integrating adaptive materials discovery and predictive modeling tools, ATOM seeks to overcome the limitations of traditional approaches and expedite the discovery of tunable optical materials with diverse properties across a broad bandwidth. This shift in approach holds great promise for unlocking breakthroughs in optical material science and enabling significant advancements in various applications, including military technologies.
The development of tunable optical materials (TOMs) in the visible and mid- to long-wave infrared (MWIR/LWIR) bands holds significant military importance. TOMs offer a range of capabilities that enhance military operations and provide a strategic advantage. They enable advanced imaging systems for improved target acquisition and situational awareness, as well as innovative camouflage technologies for stealth and concealment.
TOMs also play a crucial role in laser beam steering, precise targeting, and countermeasures against infrared-based systems, enhancing operational effectiveness and survivability.
Laser technology plays a crucial role in modern warfare, from laser-guided munitions to laser-based communication and sensing systems. TOMs with fast-switching capabilities enable precise laser beam steering and targeting, facilitating accurate engagements and reducing collateral damage.
These spectral ranges are commonly used for heat-seeking missiles, infrared sensors, and thermal imaging devices. By leveraging TOMs, military platforms can actively manipulate their thermal signatures, making them less susceptible to detection and targeting by infrared-based systems.
In warfare, maintaining stealth and minimizing detection are paramount. TOMs provide an opportunity to develop innovative camouflage technologies that can adapt to different environments and light conditions. By dynamically adjusting the refractive index and other optical properties, TOM-based camouflage materials can mimic the surrounding background, making military assets more difficult to detect by enemy forces and surveillance systems.
Furthermore, TOMs contribute to compact and lightweight optical devices for remote sensing and reconnaissance, enabling intelligence gathering and enhancing military situational awareness. Overall, the development of TOMs in these spectral ranges empowers military forces with superior capabilities, improved operational outcomes, and enhanced protection in dynamic and challenging environments.
The Limitations of Liquid Crystals:
While liquid crystals have been instrumental in visual displays, they are unsuitable for militarily relevant applications due to their slow switching speeds and limited integration capabilities. Despite being well-suited for optical filtering in visual displays, liquid crystals are not effective for militarily relevant areas of interest in both visible and infrared spectral regions.
Their relatively large molecular size and liquid nature make them inefficient for applications that demand fast switching speeds, such as laser beam steering or atmospheric turbulence correction. DARPA’s ATOM program recognizes the need for faster and more versatile tunable optical materials to meet the demands of modern warfare.
Challenges in the Infrared Spectrum:
The ATOM program acknowledges the tentative promise shown by some phase change materials in the infrared spectrum. However, these materials, which undergo phase changes induced by thermal energy, lack the desired phase-switching speed required for MWIR/LWIR applications. The program recognizes the need for a deeper understanding of material physics to develop tunable materials that can achieve non-thermally modulated properties, pushing the boundaries of what is currently possible.
ATOM is a 24-month effort divided into two phases: a 12-month discovery phase and an optional 12-month demonstration phase. Phase I will focus on identification and characterization of new tunable optical materials meeting material property metrics using adaptive materials discovery and predictive modeling tools. Phase II will focus on experimental demonstration of the new material as a switchable film over greater than 10 switching states.
The ATOM Program’s Technical Areas:
The ATOM program comprises two technical areas: infrared and visible spectrum tunable optical materials. Researchers aim to identify materials that exhibit exceptional tunability, rapid switching speeds, and compatibility with traditional foundry processes for production. The program’s interdisciplinary approach brings together experts in materials science, data science, and predictive modeling to accelerate the discovery and development of these revolutionary materials.
The Promise of DARPA’s ATOM Program:
DARPA’s ATOM program aims to overcome the limitations of existing tunable materials, such as liquid crystals, by discovering new materials that can operate in the visible and mid- to long-wave infrared (MWIR/LWIR) spectral regions. The program seeks to develop solid-state materials capable of fast-switching and tunability across multiple spectral ranges without the need for physical filtering or mechanical manipulation. By harnessing the power of artificial intelligence (AI) and advanced data science techniques, ATOM aims to accelerate the discovery and development of TOMs with unprecedented capabilities.
A materials breakthrough in ATOM could benefit a multitude of different technology platforms.
“For example, tunable optics would enable much smaller and lighter mobile imaging platforms like telescopes and drones that can correct for the image blur that comes from turbulence in the air,” Chandrasekar said. “Tunable optical filters could also simplify hyperspectral imaging systems used in applications like remote chemical sensing, thermal imaging, and food security. We hope the tunable optical materials discovered and developed in ATOM will allow us to eventually achieve these visions.”