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Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs): Revolutionizing Soldier Safety and Sustainability on the Battlefield


In the ever-advancing landscape of military technology, Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are emerging as a groundbreaking solution with the potential to transform the way soldiers are protected and sustained on the battlefield. MOFs, known for their exceptional porosity and versatility, hold the promise of storing hydrogen gas for energy, providing clean drinking water, and combating chemical warfare agents. In this article, we delve into the multifaceted applications of MOFs in military operations and their role in enhancing soldier safety and sustainability.

The MOF Advantage:

Enter Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs), a class of highly porous materials with remarkable capabilities to take up, store, separate, release, or protect gases and liquids.

Metal-organic frameworks exhibit the largest surface areas per gram known to man, thus exceeding those of traditional porous materials such as zeolites and carbons. Their surface area typically range from 1000 to 10,000 m2/g – one gram of MOF can have a surface area comparable to a FIFA soccer field. To date, MOFs with permanent porosity are more extensive in their variety and multiplicity than any other class of porous materials. These aspects have made MOFs ideal candidates for storage of fuels (hydrogen and methane), capture of carbon dioxide, and catalysis applications, to mention a few.

Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are periodic crystalline one-, two-, or three-dimensional structures composed of two major components: a metal ion or cluster of metal ions and an organic molecule called a linker. For this reason, the materials are often referred to as hybrid organic–inorganic materials. They are a subclass of coordination polymers, with the special feature that they are often porous.

According to the pore sizes, porous materials can be categorized into three classes: microporous materials with pore sizes below 2 nm, mesoporous materials with pore sizes between 2 nm and 50 nm and macroporous materials with pore sizes larger than 50 nm. The majority of inorganic framework materials fall into the category of microporous materials.

With over 60,000 known MOFs, these periodic crystalline structures consist of metal ions or clusters and organic linkers, offering unparalleled versatility.

One key feature that MOFs possess is their responsiveness toward incoming guest molecules, resulting in changes in their physical and chemical properties. Such uniqueness generally arises owing to the influenceable ligands and/or metal units that govern the formation of these ordered architectures. The suitable host–guest interactions play an important role in determining the specific responses of these materials and thus find important applications in sensing, catalysis, separation, conduction, etc.

Along these lines, the thermal and chemical stability of many MOFs has made them amenable to postsynthetic covalent organic and metal-complex functionalization. These capabilities enable substantial enhancement of gas storage in MOFs and have led to their extensive study in the catalysis of organic reactions, activation of small molecules (hydrogen, methane, and water), gas separation, biomedical imaging, and proton, electron, and ion conduction. At present, methods are being developed for making nanocrystals and supercrystals of MOFs for their incorporation into devices.

The breakthrough lies in their adaptability for various applications, from gas storage to sensing, catalysis, and even water harvesting in deserts. The building blocks of the framework – metals and organic linkers – can be combined in almost infinite ways to create novel materials. Therefore, unique structural characteristics can be achieved by tuning the basic materials according to their specified application. As a rule of thumb, MOFs outperform other materials by a factor of 10.

Military Applications:

In a significant collaboration involving Synopsys, Microsoft, and other institutions, researchers are integrating MOFs into chip design, demonstrating the versatility of these materials. Moreover, the introduction of MOFs in protective gear, such as fabrics coated with MOFs to neutralize chemical weapons, holds promise for soldiers and emergency personnel facing toxic threats.

Chemical Warfare Defense:

In the face of evolving security threats, the need for advanced protective technologies for soldiers has never been more crucial. The story unfolds on April 7, 2018, in the Syrian town of Douma, where a suspected chemical attack claimed lives and triggered a realization within the Department of Defence. Australian soldiers exposed to a low-grade chemical attack in 2017 underscored the necessity for a 21st-century solution, paving the way for groundbreaking advancements.

MOFs exhibit exceptional chemical adsorption properties, making them highly effective in combating chemical warfare agents. In situations where soldiers may face the threat of toxic gases, MOFs can be deployed to adsorb and neutralize these agents, offering a protective barrier against chemical attacks.

“The current canisters in gas masks have been used by soldiers since World War I, and haven’t been improved since,” says Associate Professor Hill. “They offer virtually no protection from common chemicals like chlorine and ammonia, so we’ve been commissioned to make a new canister that can. We’ve already found an improvement up to a factor of 40 using metal-organic frameworks. ‘Once they’re on the market, they’ll be useful to anyone needing a safer gas mask, including our soldiers, but also firefighters, miners and construction workers.”

The versatility of MOFs allows for the customization of structures to target specific chemical threats, providing a tailored defense mechanism for military forces.

Hydrogen Storage for Energy:

One of the key applications of MOFs in military settings is their ability to store hydrogen gas efficiently. Hydrogen fuel cells have long been explored as a clean and energy-efficient alternative for military vehicles and equipment. MOFs, with their high surface area and tunable structures, offer an ideal platform for adsorbing and storing hydrogen at lower pressures and higher capacities. This can significantly enhance the energy autonomy of soldiers on the field, ensuring prolonged and sustainable operations without the logistical challenges of traditional fuel sources.

Clean Water Supply and Environmental Protection

Access to clean drinking water is a critical factor in ensuring the health and well-being of soldiers deployed in challenging environments. MOFs have demonstrated remarkable capabilities in water harvesting and purification. These porous materials can selectively adsorb water vapor from the air, making them invaluable in arid or remote locations where traditional water sources are scarce. Additionally, MOFs can be tailored to selectively capture contaminants, providing a reliable source of clean and safe drinking water for military personnel.

Desalination and Water Purification:

The impact of MOFs extends beyond military applications. Researchers have pioneered a method using MOFs to filter contaminants from groundwater and industrial wastewater, offering a potential solution for safe, clean drinking water in developing regions and addressing industrial water pollution.

Although World Health Organisation guidelines determine fluoride to be safe for human consumption in levels up to 1.5 mg/litre, many developing countries have higher natural fluoridation levels in their groundwater, yet lack energy and cost-efficient methods to filter the water effectively. Also, the agriculture industry is increasingly searching for ways to clean up water pollution caused by fertiliser and pesticides, particularly in areas where contaminated run-off is at risk of entering rivers and the ocean.

MOFs have also found their way into desalination processes. Researchers at Monash University harnessed MOFs to transform brackish water and seawater into clean drinking water efficiently, using sunlight for regeneration. This innovation presents an energy-efficient and environmentally sustainable solution for desalination, a crucial development amid global water scarcity.

Versatility and Customization:

What sets MOFs apart is their versatility and the ability to be tailored for specific applications. Researchers and military scientists can design MOFs with precise structures to meet the unique requirements of different military scenarios. This adaptability ensures that MOFs can be effectively integrated into a range of military applications, from portable hydrogen storage for soldiers to large-scale water purification systems in field camps.

Addressing Challenges:

Despite their promise, MOFs pose challenges in processing into application-specific devices due to brittleness, insolubility, and low compatibility. Researchers worldwide are racing to develop effective fabrication methods to shape MOF nanocrystals into useful configurations.

Research and Development Initiatives:

The exploration of MOFs for military applications involves ongoing research and development initiatives. Collaborations between scientific institutions, defense agencies, and technology companies are actively driving the innovation and optimization of MOF-based technologies for military use. As these initiatives progress, the potential for MOFs to become standard components in military equipment and infrastructure continues to grow.

Recent Breakthroughs

A breakthrough in water purification technology has been achieved by an international research team, outlined in a study published in Nature Communications. The researchers used Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) to selectively filter negatively-charged ions (anions) from water. The MOF’s precisely tuned pores demonstrated high selectivity for fluoride anions, allowing them to pass through with minimal resistance. Unlike traditional water filtering methods, which require the removal of all anions, this breakthrough enables the extraction of specific unwanted substances with reduced cost and energy consumption.

In another significant development, a global research team, led by Professor Huanting Wang at Monash University, used MOFs and sunlight to transform brackish water and seawater into clean drinking water in less than 30 minutes. The researchers created a specific MOF, PSP-MIL-53, which demonstrated efficient desalination capabilities, yielding 139.5L of fresh water per kilogram of MOF per day with low energy consumption. This technology provides an energy-efficient and sustainable solution for desalination, utilizing abundant solar energy.

Researchers at North Carolina State University have developed a powdery coating using zirconium-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) that may deactivate chemical weapons such as sarin. The MOF-coated fabric demonstrated the ability to neutralize toxins, offering potential applications in protective clothing for soldiers and emergency workers facing chemical attacks. Additionally, a team at Dartmouth College created smart fabrics, named SOFT (Self-Organized Framework on Textiles), utilizing MOFs for improved detection and protection against toxic chemicals. These e-textiles displayed reliable conductivity, flexibility, and stability, offering a promising avenue for wearable electronics in various sectors.

Furthermore, Northwestern University researchers developed a textile coated with MOFs for efficient degradation of nerve agents such as VX and soman. The MOF-coated fabric exhibited catalytic activity, rapidly degrading chemical warfare agents, and retained stability even after exposure to various environmental conditions. This innovation presents a potential replacement for existing technologies, offering enhanced and rapid detoxification of nerve agents.

In a different application, NuMat Technologies received a contract to develop nanoporous MOF materials for next-generation filtration technology to protect soldiers from emerging threats involving unknown toxic agents. The company aims to use MOFs to reinvent gas masks and breathing apparatus, offering improved protection for modern combatants.

Finally, a new forensic technology developed by Dr. Kang Liang of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) involves using MOF crystals to reveal latent fingerprints quickly. This method offers a time-saving alternative for crime scene investigators, allowing them to visualize and photograph fingerprints at the crime scene itself.

DOE and Montana Technologies Announce Breakthrough in HVAC and Water Harvesting Technology

Montana Technologies, in collaboration with the Department of Energy (DOE), has achieved a significant breakthrough in the commercialization of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for harvesting the atmosphere as a renewable thermal energy and drinkable water source. The DOE’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) spent over two decades researching this breakthrough, and Montana Technologies successfully overcame commercialization barriers. The technology, known as AirJoule™, is set to revolutionize the HVAC industry, offering a low-cost, low-energy, refrigerant-free solution for air conditioning and water harvesting.

AirJoule™ boasts the capability to reduce power consumption by up to 75% and corresponding carbon emissions. The patented system utilizes MOFs to extract molecules from the atmosphere, providing an accessible renewable thermal energy and water resource. This innovative solution is cost-effective, using 75% less electricity than conventional dehumidification systems. Montana Technologies, in partnership with BASF, aims to apply AirJoule™ in commercial HVAC systems, delivering efficient and sustainable air conditioning, along with a low-cost, energy-efficient method for obtaining drinkable water from the air.

Dr. Asmeret Asefaw Berhe, Director of the Office of Science at the U.S. Department of Energy, emphasized the potential of AirJoule™ to decarbonize and improve various aspects of the world. Through a joint development agreement with BASF, Montana Technologies successfully demonstrated the scale-up and production of MOFs at a commercially viable cost, addressing the economic viability concerns that hindered MOFs’ widespread use in the past.

Matt Jore, CEO of Montana Technologies, highlighted the AirJoule™ platform’s significance in combating global warming emissions and power consumption, especially in the commercial HVAC sector, which contributes significantly to these issues. The breakthrough technology presents an unprecedented opportunity to make a positive impact on the world by incorporating AirJoule™ into future cooling products and addressing water scarcity challenges in regions where drinkable water is limited.

The collaboration between PNNL and Montana Technologies, facilitated through Strategic Partnership Project (SPP) Agreements, exemplifies the DOE’s commitment to encouraging public-private collaborations for technology transfer. AirJoule™ key components and system designs are now available for deployment in air conditioning applications, with plans to distribute them for humanitarian aid and emergency relief through organizations like Water.org and the Water Keepers Alliance. The announcement on Montana Technologies’ merger with Power & Digital Infrastructure Acquisition II Corp is expected to accelerate the broad commercial adoption of AirJoule™ in late 2024.

These breakthroughs collectively demonstrate the versatile applications of Metal-Organic Frameworks in addressing various challenges, from water purification and desalination to chemical protection and forensic analysis.


The future holds exciting possibilities for MOFs, from advancing gas mask technology to creating smart fabrics and combating environmental challenges.

Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) represent a paradigm shift in how we address critical challenges faced by soldiers on the battlefield. From storing hydrogen gas for energy autonomy to providing clean drinking water and defending against chemical warfare agents, the versatility of MOFs positions them as a revolutionary technology in military applications. As researchers continue to unlock the full potential of MOFs, these materials are poised to redefine safety measures, offering soldiers and civilians alike a shield against chemical threats and contributing to sustainable solutions for pressing global issues.

As research and development efforts continue, MOFs are poised to play a central role in enhancing soldier safety, sustainability, and effectiveness in the complex and dynamic landscape of modern warfare. The integration of MOFs into military operations not only ensures the well-being of soldiers but also reflects the ongoing commitment to leveraging cutting-edge technologies for national defense.













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