A missile refers to a weapon propelled by its own power device, and its flight is controlled by a control system and directed to a target, while a rocket is an aircraft propelled by the reaction force generated by a rocket engine.
A rocket is defined as a technologically advanced reaction motor that can carry its oxidant to propel a launch vehicle. A reaction motor is used as a propulsion device to generate a forward push by expelling the rocket structure in a backward direction.
A missile is an unmanned rocket vehicle. A missile consists of two main parts, one is the warhead and the other is the carrier. It is the warhead that is directly used for combat. The warhead of some missiles is arranged at the forefront of the missile and is a combination of the guidance system and an explosive material. A missile is guided by a ground-based communication center.
Missiles are classified as ballistic missiles and cruise missiles. A ballistic missile has a ballistic trajectory over its flight path. Ballistic missiles are classified according to their range, such as short-range ballistic missile (SRBM), medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM), intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM), an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM).
A cruise missile is a self propelled guided missile that is used to destroy the preset targets. A cruise missile is classified into a subsonic cruise missile, supersonic cruise missile, and a hypersonic cruise missile. Cruise Missile is further bifurcated into short range (<300 km), medium range (300-1000 km), and long range ((>1000 km).
On the basis of launch mode, the rocket and missile market is segmented into Surface-to-Surface (SSM), Surface-to-Air (SAM), Air-to-Surface (ASM), Air-to-Air (AAM), and Subsea-to-Surface (SuSM).
The function of the propulsion system is to produce thrust, which is the force that moves a rocket through air and space. Different propulsion systems generate thrust in different ways, but always through some application of Newton’s third law of motion. In any propulsion system, a working fluid is accelerated and the reaction to this acceleration produces a force on the system. A general derivation of the thrust equation shows that the amount of thrust generated depends on the mass flow through the engine and the exit velocity of the gas.
There are four basic principles of propulsion systems: the turbine or jet engine, the propeller, the rocket and the ramjet. Additionally, the propulsion of a rocket comprises all parts which make up a rocket engine: propellants, tanks, pumps, rocket nozzle and power head.
An aircraft propulsion system must be a package of two things. Firstly, the thrust created from the propulsion system must be balanced with the airborne vehicles’ drag, so that it may cruise. And secondly, the thrust created by the propulsion system must be more than the drag of the airborne vehicle so that the airplane can accelerate. In fact, the bigger the difference between the drag and the thrust, the faster the airborne vehicle will accelerate; this difference is known as excess thrust.
There are four basic principles of propulsion systems: the turbine or jet engine, the propeller, the rocket and the ramjet. Additionally, the propulsion of a rocket comprises all parts which make up a rocket engine: propellants, tanks, pumps, rocket nozzle and power head.
Rockets that employ chemical propellants come in different forms, but all share analogous basic components. These are (1) a combustion chamber where condensed-phase propellants are converted to hot gaseous reaction products, (2) a nozzle to accelerate the gas to high exhaust velocity, (3) propellant containers, (4) a means of feeding the propellants into the combustion chamber, (5) a structure to support and protect the parts, and (6) various guidance and control devices.
The global rocket and missile market size was valued at USD 52.54 billion in 2019 and is projected to reach USD 71.79 billion by 2027, exhibiting a CAGR of 4.52% during the forecast period (2020-2027). The Rocket and Missile Market is expected to witness market growth at a rate of 4.45% in the forecast period of 2021 to 2028, the expansion and capital investments on new defense technology of military sector is escalating the growth of rocket and missile market.
The demand to increase transportation of goods and humans with advanced propulsion systems by government authorities and manufacturers has boosted demand for the propulsion system market and this market is forecasted to grow yet more rapidly in the future. The market for propulsion systems will remain healthy in the coming years as this component has been gaining popularity in all developing economies.
Moreover, the rise in terrorism and geopolitical instabilities across the world acts as the one of the key reason for driving the growth of the rocket and missile market. According to Data Bridge Market Research the market for Global Rocket and Missile is expected to gain growth due to rise in the defense expenditure across emerging markets of Asia-Pacific, such as India and China and advancement in nature of warfare technologies. The continuous innovation and advancements in the Air Rocket Missiles such as Surface-to-Surface (SSM), Surface-to-Air (SAM), Air-to-Surface (ASM), Air-to-Air (AAM), Subsea-to-Surface (SuSM) to reduce battlefield time and to greatly reduce the size of missiles and its components influence the market. Moreover, national security concerns, pumping of investment, and expansion of defense sector add to the growth of the global rocket and missile market.
Furthermore, new technologies and inventions in propulsion systems will foster growth in the global market. Initiatives for the development of advanced autonomous missile technologies are the upcoming opportunities for the market. However, the high cost associated with building rockets and missiles is hampering market growth.
The propulsion system market is expected to grow with a significantly growing CAGR in the coming future due to its increasing applications in various defense weapons globally. . The factors expected to drive the market for rocket and missile include the increasing defense expenditure of emerging economies such as China and India. Moreover, the changing nature of warfare technologies across the globe is anticipated to boost the market.
Technological Advancements in Warfare Techniques to Propel the Market
Guided-weapons technology is an advanced warfare technique used by several defense forces across the globe. The technologically advanced guided missiles are classified as short-range antiair missiles, medium-range and long-range air-to-land and air-to-air missiles, and ballistic and cruise missiles. The U.S, China, and Russia are continuously developing hypersonic missiles, which can reach a flight-speed up to Mach 5. The increasing adoption of the command system, control system, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C5ISR) warfare techniques among emerging economies such as India to reduce the strike time during the battlefield operations is fueling the market growth.
Growing Preference for Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) Missile Systems to Support Market Growth The primary aim of an automatic target-recognition missile system is to detect the adversary targets such as armored personnel carriers, military tanks, and howitzers. The target is detected by using the collected data, such as several images of enemy location from laser radar sensors . The ATR architecture is majorly used for anti-ship missiles. This technology has Imaging Infrared (IR) capabilities along with multi-layered articial neural networks.
The ATR can achieve 90% target recognition in 43ms. In the year 2019, the U.S. approved a USD 617 billion defense budget. The U.S. military spending is projected to account for 52 percent of all federal defense spending. The increasing use of the ATR missile system from the U.S. and Russian armies to recognize missile targets are supporting the market growth.
Additive Manufacturing Technology Implemented by Key Market Players to Propel Market Growth
Additive manufacturing technology used to build a complex geometrical structure of rocket & missiles, multiple independent re-entry vehicles (MIRV), and fiber optic guidance systems is the upcoming trend in this market. A diversied product portfolio coupled with technologically advanced solutions and research and development (R&D) activity are the major factors behind the dominance of these key market players.
3D printing is an additive manufacturing technology used to build complex geometrical structures, including those of rockets & missiles. Technologically advanced 3D printers are used to produce missiles’ and rockets’ complex components and structures such as warheads, the outer skin of missiles, fuel tanks, and control vanes of missiles. Faster product development, single-step manufacture, low-cost production, and more sustainability are the main features of 3D printing technology.
For example, in March 2016, the U.S. Navy launched the Trident II D5 ballistic missile. Lockheed Martin designed a 3D printed component for Trident II D5 ballistic missile. It is a new, high-tech upgrade for the U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile (FBM) program. The increasing adoption of 3D printing technology from the key players in the defense manufacturing industry is anticipated to boost the
rocket and missile market growth.
High Development Cost of Rockets and Missiles and COVID-19 Effect to Hinder Market Growth
The high development costs associated with building ballistic and cruise missiles are a prime factor hampering the rocket and missiles market growth. Rapidly changing technology in weapon launch systems is accountable for replacing the conventional weapon launch systems. Therefore, the high costs associated with inventing new technologies are restraining market growth.
The COVID-19 pandemic is creating a huge financial impact on the defense manufacturing business. The major defense manufacturing companies are closed due to the lockdowns implemented by the government authorities worldwide. Certain rules, regulations, and protocols have been declared by governments across the globe for businesses to restart their production.
The rocket & missile market is facing demand and supply shortage, where there is a huge demand from the developed countries, but OEMs are not able to work at full potential. There has been a concern that determines the cutting-edge of economy and market constraints. The COVID19 eect has reduced the funding resources vital to preserving improvement and operations from a small launch enterprise. Moreover, the defense manufacturing industry is unable to manage the remotely operated work system as it requires an on-site presence of a skilled
workforce. The reduction in the revenue of the OEM companies during the financial year 2020 is expected to affect market growth
Increased Use of Self-Propelled Guided Missile across the Globe to Aid Cruise Missile Segment Growth
On the basis of type, the market for rocket and missile is classified into rockets and missiles.
The missile segment is projected to register the largest growth during the forecast period. This growth is attributed to the increased use of self-propelled guided missiles from several armed forces across the globe. A hypersonic cruise missile can reach speeds of up to 5 Mach. Many emerging economies, such as China and India, are developing hypersonic cruise missiles. The rocket segment is anticipated to display the fastest growth during the forecast period, attributed to the increased use of artillery rockets and air-launched rockets in Europe and the Asia Pacific.
Rocket propulsion market based on type, propulsion type, orbit, component, launch vehicle type, end user, and region.
By Launch Mode Analysis
Increasing Use of Laser-Guided Missiles to Support Market Growth
Based on launch mode, the market is segregated into surface-to-surface, surface-to-air, air-to-air, air-to-surface, and subsea-to-surface. A surface-to-surface missile is majorly used by the armed forces during battleeld operations. It has a guided projectile that is powered by a rocket motor and can be launched from trailer-mounted platforms, hand-held platforms, vehicle-mounted platforms, and xed installation platforms. This missile is launched from the ground-based platform to destroy aerial targets such as military helicopters and military aircraft . An air-to-air missile is launched from a military aircraft and majorly used to destroy the opponent’s aerial vehicles.
By Platform Analysis
Increasing Use of Land-Attack Cruise Missiles is Propelling the Market
On the basis of type, the market for rocket and missile is classified into rockets and missiles. Missiles are classified as ballistic missiles and cruise missiles. A ballistic missile has a ballistic trajectory over its ight path. Ballistic missiles are classified according to their range, such as
short-range ballistic missile (SRBM), medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM), intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM), an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). A cruise missile is a self propelled guided missile that is used to destroy the preset targets. A cruise missile is classified into a subsonic cruise missile, supersonic cruise missile, and a hypersonic cruise missile.
The air-to-air missile has a speed of up to 4 Mach And is majorly used in military aircraft to attack ground-based preset targets, and these missiles are enabled with GPS-based laser guidance technology. On the other hand, the subsea-to-surface missile is intended for launch from naval vessels to land-based targets. The surface-to-surface segment is predicted to be the largest and fastest-growing segment in the rocket and missile market during the forecast period. This growth is attributable to the increasing development of laser-guided missiles, combat scenarios, and the use of anti-tank and anti-ship guided missiles from the U.S and Russian armed forces.
In terms of platform, the rocket and missiles market is divided into airborne, naval, and ground. In airborne platforms, missiles are launched from the combat fighter aircraft to destroy the targeted base camp of opponents. In naval vessels, the weapon launch system is installed to
improve the attacking capacity of the vessels. In the naval platform, missiles are red from the aircraft carrier, corvette, and several attacking naval vessels during the maritime operations. In the ground platform, several multi-range rockets & missiles are red from the earth-based
control stations as well as combat military vehicles.
The ground segment is projected to register the largest market share during the forecast period. This growth is attributed to the increasing
use of land-attack cruise missiles and ballistic missiles across the world. Land-attack cruise missiles are the advanced missiles that are launched from airborne and naval platforms as well as a ground platform. China has YJ-63, CJ-10, and CJ-20 land-attack cruise missiles (LACM). Furthermore, India has Bramhos-1 and Bramos-2 LACM missiles.
Ballistic missiles are also used in naval submarines. A submarine has the capacity to deploy & launch ballistic missiles with nuclear warheads. Currently, their deployment has been ruled by the U.S., Russia, France, the UK, China, and India.
The naval segment is anticipated to experience the fastest growth during the forecast period, attributed to the increasing naval exercises between the U.S., India, and China. For instance, in May 2020, the littoral combat ship USS Gabrielle Giords (the U.S.) and the stealth frigate RSS Steadfast (Republic of Singapore Navy) has been conducted a joint naval exercise in the South China Sea.
By Propulsion Analysis
Chemical rocket propulsion systems are classified into two general types according to whether they burn propellants stored as solid or as liquid. Solid systems are usually called motors, and liquid systems are referred to as engines. Some developmental work has been carried out on so-called hybrid systems, in which the fuel is a solid and the oxidizer is a liquid, or vice versa. The characteristics of such systems differ greatly depending on the requirements of a given mission.
Solid Segment Dominated the Global Market Backed by Increasing Use of Solid Fuel in the Ballistic Missiles
By propulsion, the market is classied into solid, liquid, hybrid, scramjet, cryogenic, and ramjet. Solid fuel is made from aluminum powder and used in solid propulsion. The solid segment is expected to hold the largest market share between 2019 and 2027. This growth is owing to the increasing use of solid fuel in ballistic missiles due to the storing advantage of solid fuel. Solid fuel is able to provide a large amount of thrust. Liquid fuels are hydrocarbons. The loading of missiles with liquid fuel is a complex process. The liquid fuel is able to provide a high impulse rate irrespective of the solid fuel involved.
Hybrid propulsion is a combination of solid propulsion and liquid propulsion; thus, it has the combined advantages of both (solid and liquid) propulsions.
Scramjet stands for supersonic combustion ramjet and uses hydrogen fuel. It has the capacity to provide supersonic air velocity to the missiles. In the cryogenic propellants, liquid oxygen is used as the oxidizer, and liquid hydrogen is used as the fuel. Cryogenic propellants are liquefied gases and stored at very low temperatures, majorly used in geosynchronous satellite launch vehicles. A ramjet is an advanced air-breathing jet engine, which uses the supersonic exhaust from a rocket combustion system to provide a thrust even at zero speed.
However, the demand for advanced rocket and missile propulsion systems by value is expected to grow due to the growing number of satellite launches and rising research and development activities to develop cost-efficient propulsion technologies. Additionally, the growing demand for missile and ballistic missile defense systems is propelling the demand for advanced rocket and missile propulsion systems.
Air-Breathing, Gas Turbines & Jet Engines, Ramjets & Scramjets, Internal Combustion
The propulsion system provide UAV’s the necessary power to propel the aircraft for forward flight or hover. The endurance of a UAV is influenced by the propulsion technology used and is dependent on the aerodynamic design and amount of fuel carried. To fulfil the energy requirements of a large variety of UAVs, several variants of piston-engines and electric motors have been designed by the market players. The potential benefits of a propulsion system are measured by their impact on the costs of the whole UAV. Lightweight, more fuel-efficient engines permit usage of expensive payload for a given mission without significantly affecting the size and cost of the UAV.
Their principle is: A mixture of petroleum distillates and air are pressurized as an enclosure collapses. Consequently, the temperature increases with the pressure. An ignition event occurs causing a rapid combustion of the fuel and air mixture. This forces the enclosure to expand with great force, a motion that is translated to a lever-arm mechanism (more specifically, a crankshaft), converting reciprocating motion into rotating motion.
All jet engines, which are also called gas turbines, work on the same principle. The engine sucks air in at the front with a fan. A compressor raises the pressure of the air. The compressed air is then sprayed with fuel and an electric spark lights the mixture. The burning gases expand and blast out through the nozzle, at the back of the engine. As the jets of gas shoot backward, the engine and the aircraft are thrust forward. As the hot air is going to the nozzle, it passes through another group of blades called the turbine. The turbine is attached to the same shaft as the compressor. Spinning the turbine causes the compressor to spin.
A gas turbine engine comes in various forms, and the three common are the jet turbine engine, turbofan engine, and turboprop engine. A turbofan works on a similar principle as a jet turbine, except that more work is sapped from the higher energy exhaust gas to drive a fan mechanism, trading off some direct thrust for additional fan driven thrust . A turboprop engine operates on a similar principle as a turbofan, except that instead of a fraction, almost all of the high-energy output is used to drive a turbine that is gear coupled to a propeller. A turboshaft is similar to the turboprop except that the power is supplied to a shaft rather than a propeller (used extensively for rotorcraft)
Scramjets are ‘airbreathing’ aircraft because rather than carrying both fuel and the oxygen needed to provide acceleration, they carry only hydrogen fuel and ‘pull’ the oxygen needed to burn it from the atmosphere. Unlike a turbojet engine, it does not have any turbine blades to compress air, but instead relies on air being forced through its inlet as it is pushed through the atmosphere at high speeds, often propelled by a rocket booster. The result is a jet engine with no moving parts, which cannot produce thrust on its own from a standstill.
Like a conventional turbojet engine, a scramjet inhales air through its inlet, compresses and mixes it with fuel, the compression causing the temperature to rise and ignition to occur. This generates huge amounts of thrust and enables the jet to travel at speeds far in excess of the 1,350mph top speed of Concorde. A scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) is a variation of a ramjet with the distinction being that the combustion process takes place supersonically. However, combustion of air and fuel in a ramjet takes place at velocities below Mach 1, while combustion of air and fuel in a scramjet takes place at supersonic speeds. At higher speeds, it is necessary to combust supersonically to maximize the efficiency of the combustion process and to avoid the losses induced by a final normal shock.
Non Air-Breathing: Hybrid Propulsion, Electric Propulsion, Solid Propulsion, Liquid Propulsion
Rockets generate thrust when a working fluid reacts with oxygen in a combustion chamber. The chemical reaction generates thrust with hot exhaust gasses.
Rocket systems are self-contained flight vehicles, which carry their fuel and oxidizer internally and boost their payloads to high velocity. A rocket is propelled by a chemical reaction that generates extreme pressure gradients and high-velocity particles that exit a nozzle. The resulting momentum exchange provides impulse over some duration, accelerating the rocket’s mass.
A large fraction of the rocket engines in use today are chemical rockets; that is, they obtain the energy needed to generate thrust by chemical reactions to create a hot gas that is expanded to produce thrust. In Liquid fuel propulsion, the propellant is comprised of two composites: fuel and oxidizer. They are stored separately in tanks in the liquid phase and are pumped into the nozzle combustion chamber where burning occurs. The engine can stop the combustion and the thrust by turning off the propellant flow. Liquid rockets tend to be heavier and more complex because of the pumps and storage tanks.
The Department of Defense (DOD) relies on multiple types of missiles—including tactical missiles used for short distances, longer-range strategic missiles, and missile defense systems to intercept enemy missiles—to provide essential defense capabilities. Many of these missiles are powered by solid rocket motor (SRM) propulsion systems, which provide the thrust the missiles need to reach their intended targets. SRMs are the propulsion systems that propel various types of missiles and are also used in space launch activities, including the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Space Shuttle program.
In a solid rocket fuel grain, all the components required for vigorous combustion are mixed together and packed into a solid cylinder, into one substance. Once the combustion starts, it proceeds until all the propellant is exhausted. There will be an oxidizer (usually a salt such as ammonium perchlorate or potassium nitrate), a fuel (HTPB – Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene) or some other solid hydrocarbon and an accelerant (sulphur, powdered aluminium, or other easily oxidized metal). When lit, the fuel grain will burn energetically, releasing a large volume of hot gases that are used to provide thrust.
SRM consists of a casing filled with solid propellant that, when ignited, expels hot gases through a nozzle to produce thrust. DOD describes the overall SRM components as being consistent among the missile types, although size and scale of propellant requirements vary. For example, tactical missiles use the smallest SRMs—ranging from about 3 inches up to 24 inches in diameter—and require between 3 and almost 1,600 pounds of propellant. Strategic missiles use large SRMs that exceed 40 inches, while missile defense systems utilize both small and large SRMs. Space launch SRMs can exceed 150 inches and can require more than a million pounds of propellant.
Hybrid propulsion systems, are hybrids or a cross between other types of rocket motor, in particular, liquid fueled rockets and solid fuel rockets. They were conceived to overcome the complexities of liquid bi-propellant engines and the lack of controllability of solid rocket motors.
Rocket Propulsion Market, By Region North America Europe Asia Pacific Middle East
The global rocket and missile market have been segmented into regions such as North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, the Middle East & Africa, and the Rest of the World.
North America is estimated to lead the rocket propulsion market owing to the increasing spending on the military modernization program by the US and Canada.
North America Advanced Rocket and Missile Propulsion Systems Market to Reach $3.70 Billion by 2025 . The increasing demand for space launch services for various payloads, such as satellites, human spacecraft, missions to ISS, increasing use of fiber optic guidance systems by the US Army, and testing probes which is anticipated to drive the growth of the rocket propulsion market in North America. Additionally, the growing demand for propulsion systems is accelerated with the growing U.S. defense budget for missile and ballistic missile defense programs.
The region is investing significantly in the development of space tourism and exploration and space probe missions, which is adding to the growth of rocket propulsion market. The presence of key players in the North American advanced rocket and missile propulsion systems market include Aerojet Rocketdyne, Blue Origin, Northrop Grumman Corporation, SpaceX, Lockheed Martin Corporation, General Dynamics Corporation, Raytheon Technologies Corporation, and Moog Inc is projected to boost the region’s dominance in the rocket and missile market share.
However, the rocket propulsion market in the Asia Pacific region is projected to grow at the highest CAGR owing to increasing investments in the space launch industry. This growth is attributed to the increasing use of multiple independent re-entry vehicles (MIRV) by the People’s Liberation Army Navy (CHINA) and the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force. In February 2019, the Thales Group signed a contract with Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (India) to supply one hundred thirty-ve 2.75-inch (70-mm) rocket launchers for the Indian armed forces.
The European market for rocket and missile will be driven by the increasing funding from the private sector to supply ballistic missiles is projected to boost the market. In the U.K., increased the market growth. The Middle East also registers remarkable growth during the forecast period. This growth is attributable to the proposed adoption of missile technology by Saudi Arabia and Turkey. The Rest of the World is expected to register significant growth during the forecast period owing to the increasing defense spending in Latin America and Africa.
The market has very few players that manufacture such devices as it is a challenging task to manufacture a propulsion system since the design and manufacturing is complex and needs great technicality and dedication. The propulsion system market has lot of scope in the research and development department and it is innovating and coming up with new ideas to upgrade itself in the near future. Some prominent aeronautical industries are trying to develop advanced propulsion systems which can produce effective thrust by minimum consumption of fuel in the engine assembly.
Key Indutry Players are Airbus S.A.S., Ariane Group, Avio S.p.A, Blue Origin, IHI Corporation, Denel Dynamics (South Africa), General Dynamics Corporation (The U.S.), KONGSBERG (Norway), Lockheed Martin Corporation (The U.S.), MBDA (France), MESKO (Poland), Nammo AS (Norway), Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd. (Israel), Raytheon Technologies Corporation (The U.S.), ROKETSAN A.S. (Turkey), Saab AB (Sweden), Thales Group (France), Antrix (India), Aerojet Rocketdyne (US), Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (Japan), Orbital ATK (US), and Safran S.A. (France), Moog Inc., Northrop Grumman Corporation, NPO Energomash, OHB SE, and SpaceX.
Key Industry Developments
May 2020 – Lockheed Martin Corporation and the U.S. Army have signed a contract with a valuation of USD 6,000 million for the production of Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) Missile. Lockheed Martin Corporation provided the production and delivery of launcher modication kits, PAC-3 MSE interceptors, and associated equipment.
April 2020- Raytheon Company and the Naval Sea Systems Command (U.S. Navy) have signed a contract with a valuation of USD 146 million to provide guided missile round packsfor the U.S. Navy.
XCOR Engineers Announced Major Breakthrough in Rocket Engine Technology in 2015
XCOR Director of Engineering and acting CTO Michael Valant reported in 2015 that his team has reached an important milestone in the development of the reusable 5K18 Lynx main propulsion rocket engine. His engineers were able to ‘close the loop’ of the thermodynamic system under test conditions, a key technology for the Lynx sub-orbital vehicle.
This technology includes a novel method to drive essential engine parts using waste heat from the rocket engine, thus eliminating the need for adding large, heavy compressed gas tanks to the vehicle. This propulsion system is an essential part of the Lynx “instant reusability” because it allows the vehicle to be flown multiple times per day without costly servicing of components. In addition, XCOR engine technology could be used to benefit other rocket-propelled vehicles in the same way.
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