A typical passenger vehicle emits about 4.6 metric tons of carbon dioxide per year.
This assumes the average gasoline vehicle on the road today has a fuel economy of about 22.0 miles per gallon and drives around 11,500 miles per year. Every gallon of gasoline burned creates about 8,887 grams of CO2. All-electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) typically produce lower tailpipe emissions than conventional vehicles do. But for electric vehicles, traveling range and charging process are the two major issues affecting it’s adoption over conventional vehicles.
The International Energy Agency estimates that electric vehicles will grow from 3 million to 125 million by 2030, which means an average of 44 million vehicles sold each year. As electric vehicles replace vehicles powered by fossil fuels, more charging stations must become available to cater to the growing number of e-vehicles. As the number of electric cars on the road has continued to increase, private and publicly accessible charging infrastructure has also continued to grow.
Charging stations provide connectors equipped with multiple adaptors to ensure compliance with a variety of standards. Electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) is the basic unit of EV charging infrastructure. The EVSE accesses power from the local electricity supply and utilizes a control system and wired connection to safely charge EVs. An EVSE control system enables various functions such as user authentication, authorization for charging, information recording and exchange for network management, and data privacy and security
EV charging requirements depend on the specifications of EV batteries, as power must be supplied to the battery at the right voltage and current levels to permit charging. Typical capacity and voltage of EV batteries vary among the different EV segments.
EV charging involves supply of direct current (DC) to the battery pack. As electricity distribution systems supply alternate current (AC) power, a converter is required to provide DC power to the battery. Conductive charging can be AC or DC. In the case of an AC EVSE, the AC power is delivered to the onboard charger of the EV, which converts it to DC. A DC EVSE converts the power externally and supplies DC power directly to the battery, bypassing the onboard charger.
Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging technologies
Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging technologies refer to the various methods and equipment used to charge the batteries of electric vehicles. The most common EV charging technologies include:
- Level 1 Charging: Also known as slow charging, this method uses a 120-volt household outlet to charge an EV. It typically takes several hours to charge an EV battery using this method.
- Level 2 Charging: This method uses a 240-volt outlet, similar to the one used for home appliances such as electric ranges or clothes dryers. It can charge an EV battery in a few hours, depending on the battery size and the vehicle’s charging capability.
- Level 3 Charging: Also known as fast charging, this method uses a 480-volt outlet and can charge an EV battery to 80% in about 30 minutes.
- Wireless Charging: This method uses electromagnetic induction to transfer energy from a charging pad to a vehicle without the need for physical connections.
- Solar Charging: Solar panels are used to generate electricity to charge an EV battery.
- Bi-directional Charging: This method enables EVs to not only charge from the grid but also to provide power back to the grid during periods of high demand.
- DC Fast Charging: It uses direct current to charge the battery and can charge the battery to 80% in 20-30 minutes.
The choice of charging technology will depend on the specific needs and preferences of the EV owner, as well as the availability and accessibility of different types of charging stations in a given location.
Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging System
Wireless charging is based on inductive charging technology, same as in transformer. In wireless charging there are transmitter and receiver, 220V 50Hz AC supply is converted into High frequency alternating current and this high frequency AC is supplied to transmitter coil, then it creates alternating magnetic field that cuts the receiver coil and causes the production of AC power output in receiver coil.
But the important thing for efficient wireless charging is to maintain the resonance frequency between transmitter and receiver. To maintain the resonant frequencies, compensation networks are added at both sides. Then finally, this AC power at receiver side rectified to DC and fed to the battery through Battery Management System (BMS).
One magnetic coil in the charger which is hidden beneath the road surface transfers electricity through an air gap to the second magnetic coil which is fitted underside of the vehicle. Drivers simply need to park their vehicle in a position where the coils are adjusted for charging to begin. The car could be parked several inches away from the charging point, and yet be accessed.
SMART EV CHARGING
Smart EV charging or intelligent charging refers to a system where an electric vehicle and a charging device share a data connection, and the charging device shares a data connection with a charging operator.
As opposed to traditional (or dumb) charging devices that aren’t connected to the cloud, smart charging allows the charging station owner to monitor, manage, and restrict the use of their devices remotely to optimize energy consumption.
It depends on sophisticated back-end software that captures data from EVs, networked chargers, and the grid. That data is used to optimize charging of EVs, integrate power from storage and renewable sources, and minimize impact on the grid. For buildings and fleets, site-level energy needs are also factored in. Advanced algorithms balance all these elements to dynamically distribute the lowest-cost energy when and where it’s needed without compromising either local energy needs or EV charging.
Self-Healing Algorithms for EV Charging Management
Self-healing algorithms for EV charging management are a type of software that can automatically detect and diagnose problems with an electric vehicle (EV) charging system, and then take corrective action to fix those problems. These algorithms can be designed to monitor various aspects of the charging system, such as the charging rate, the state of the battery, and the temperature of the charging components.
When a problem is detected, the algorithm can take action to resolve it, such as adjusting the charging rate, shutting down the charging process, or sending a message to the system operator to alert them to the issue. These algorithms can also be designed to optimize the charging process for maximum efficiency and safety.
Examples of self-healing algorithms for EV charging management include:
- Battery management systems (BMS) that monitor the state of the battery and adjust the charging rate accordingly to prolong the battery life.
- Charging algorithms that adapt the charging rate based on the temperature of the charging components to ensure that they don’t overheat.
- Predictive maintenance algorithms that can detect and diagnose problems with the charging system before they occur, such as identifying when a component is likely to fail and scheduling maintenance before it becomes an issue.
Overall, self-healing algorithms for EV charging management can help to improve the reliability, safety and performance of EV charging systems, and make them more convenient and user-friendly for EV owners.
While the integration of electric vehicles could challenge electricity grids, bidirectional power flows between vehicles and grids could support grid operations. V2G envisions using smart EV charging to control a two-way flow of energy between EVs and the grid.
Instead of generating more power during peak times, utilities would purchase stored energy from EV owners and distribute it over the grid. During non-peak times, the EVs would draw energy for recharging. V2X extends the idea to include different use cases and destinations for power drawn from EVs, such as vehicle-to-home (V2H), vehicle-to-building (V2B), vehicle-to-farm (V2F) and vehicle-to-load (V2L).
V2G technology works through specially designed bi-directional charging stations. These charging stations allow electric vehicle owners to charge their cars whilst also facilitating the discharge of the vehicle’s battery.
Smart Battery Management
EV batteries consist of thousands of cells, which are grouped into modules, which are connected so they act as one battery. When enough cells degrade to the point where the battery is no longer useful for powering electric vehicles, smart battery management technology can give those batteries a second life. They can be “racked and stacked” so that multiple EV batteries can act as one very large battery that can be used for local storage of energy from the grid or from renewable sources.
The technology that makes this possible combines software, sensors, and hardware to correct for non-functioning cells, optimize charging, and communicate with smart EV charging and energy management software. In this way, energy from renewables can be captured when conditions are good, stored, and integrated back into the local grid or the local EV charging infrastructure
New space tech can charge electric cars in just five minutes: NASA
A new NASA-funded technology for future space missions may charge an electric car in just five minutes on Earth, paving the way for increased adoption of such vehicles, the US space agency said.
Researchers at Purdue University, US developed the Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment (FBCE) to enable two-phase fluid flow and heat transfer experiments to be conducted in the long-duration microgravity environment on the International Space Station (ISS).
The new “subcooled flow boiling” technique results in greatly improved heat transfer effectiveness compared to other approaches and could be used to control the temperatures of future systems in space.
This technology can also have applications on Earth: It could make owning an electric car more appealing, the researchers said.
Currently, charging times vary widely, from 20 minutes at a station alongside a roadway to hours using an at-home charging station.
Lengthy charging times and charger location are both cited as major concerns of people who are considering electric vehicle ownership.
Reducing the charging time for electric vehicles to five minutes—an industry goal—will require charging systems to provide current at 1,400 amperes.
Smarter, faster, lower cost, and green. That’s what consumers and business customers are looking for in EV technology advances, whether it’s charging and energy management or batteries and vehicles themselves.
References and Resources also include: