5G will enable a new set of services, not only for human users but also for industrial and automotive purposes. Key factors for acceptance and use are ultra-high reliability and real-time interaction capability. For those future applications, it is key to measure and rate the interactivity of a network and to efficiently identify transmission bottlenecks.
A service-level agreement (SLA) defines the level of service you expect from a vendor, laying out the metrics by which service is measured, as well as remedies or penalties should agreed-on service levels not be achieved. It is a critical component of any technology vendor contract.
SLAs define QoS via Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
• Connection time
• End to end Latency/Jitter
• Service Availability
– SLAs also define QoS boundaries!
• Space-to-ground KPI measurements – Measurement packets generated by payload
• Ground-to-space KPI measurements – Measurement packets generated by UTs to payload
• End-to-end KPI measurements
Carrier to Noise ratio (CNR) Ratio of a desired signal power (at RF) and the power of receiver noise, expressed in decibels. CNR is a measure about the signal quality of an RF channel. It provides nearly-real-time information that may be correlated with other KPIs, e.g. FER measurements, for root cause identification of detected anomalies.
Packet one-way delay Amount of time between the sending of a frame and when the frame is received or decoded
Frame Round trip delay (RTT) Time in seconds between the transmission of a frame from a source and the response received at the destination link entity
Throughput Average rate of successful message delivery over a communication channel. The throughput is usually measured in bits per second (bit/s or bps), and sometimes in data frames per second or data frames per time slot.
Data link Reliability Probability that the data link communications service will deliver a particular message or bit sequence without errors
Frame loss rate (FLR) Ratio of the number of data frames that have been lost in transmission over the total number of frames that have been transmitted.
Jitter Variation over time of the packet delay across a network. Packet jitter is expressed as an average of the deviation from the network mean delay.
Out of order rate Ratio of the number of packets received in order with respect to the sender over the number of packets received in a different order than the transmitted one
Block probability: Probability that a connection request will be rejected, for instance due to insufficient resources.
“Bandwidth” capacity: Capacity (expressed in bits per seconds) of the physical medium to transmit binary data
Data link integrity: Undetected bit error rate
Sector (Cell) capacity: Maximum number of users that can be simultaneously supported in the sector/cell without performance degradation
RF Network optimization takes feedback from various tests conducted on the site, during field trials and during drive testing. Based on the feedback of data collected (i.e. logs) and continuous monitoring of parameters against set KPIs (Key Performance Parameters), suggestions and improvements are planned. Based on this, fine network parameter tuning is applied to achieve the desired performance. KPIs typically fall into three functional categories viz. area level, cell level and TRX level.
RF Drive testing process involves the following:
• Live region of the network is selected first.
• Drive test path is decided next.
• RF drive test kit including mobile equipment, drive test software, Scanner, laptop PC, GPS module are arranged.
During the RF drive tests following typical tests are performed and in case of test failures, data logs are collected for further analysis by experts.
• Continuous CS (Circuit Switched) or voice call
• Continuous PS (Packet Switched) or data call
• Handover tests between two cells of the same RAT (Radio Access Technology i.e. GSM)
• Handover tests between cells of the two different RATs (i.e. between GSM and CDMA or between GSM and LTE etc.)
• Cell selection and re-selection etc.
After the drive tests are completed and data logs are available following typical suggestions are given by the RF optimization experts to the field team or to the software team.
• Antenna locations have been moved
• Antenna height from ground is altered.
• serving ARFCNs are being changed.
• Antenna orientation is being adjusted and if needed polarization is changed.
• Software or firmware is being upgraded as per PHY (layer-1) and RF parameters
|Equipment or Tool with Vendor||Description|
|TEMS CELL PLANNER UNIVERSAL, Ericsson||Used for RF network planning for cellular systems. Supports GSM, CDMA, WCDMA, TACS, TDMA, AMPS, GPRS etc.|
|TEMS CellPlanner from Ascom Network Testing Inc. USA||USed for design, planning and optimization of 2G(GSM), 3G(WCDMA), WiMAX, LTE networks|
|Nemo Outdoor from Anite||Drive test tool for wireless networks such as VoLTE/ViLTE, VoWiFi/ViWiFi etc.|
|Rohde & Schwarz, R&S® ROMES, R&S® NORA||Drive test and RF optimization software
Supports LTE, HSPDA/HSUPA, EDGE & GPRS
QXDM Professional provides a diagnostic client for rapid prototyping of new clients and protocol packets. It utilizes a graphical user interface to display data transmitted to and from the subscriber station.
This customer guide summarizes how to acquire and use QXDM Professional through the following:
• Engagement model
• Tool utility
Real-time Monitor Support Diagnostic services become available on the device during Bring up. Use the real-time
monitor to track diagnostic logs, events, and messages from the device
Capture diagnostic logs, events, and messages as .isf files for data analysis during the Integrate and Verify phases. Review regression, lab, and field test results during verification.
Handheld Air Interface Field Testing Solution
Capturing RAN performance. XCAL-Mobile is a leading handheld air interface monitoring tool that enables QoS and QoE testing across all GSM / WCDMA / EVDO / WiFi / LTE / LTE-A / NB-IoT / 5G NR technologies. It supports extensive application testing and delivers real-time network measurement and visualization capability in smart devices. All features can be controlled using the normal handset keys, which means anybody can use it. XCAL-Mobile supports all major smartphone and can be extended to include Android devices.
- Record radio interface data to optimize RAN performance (network rollout, tuning, verification and maintenance)
- Calibrate the performance of network service (Voice, FTP, HTTP, Multi-RAB, etc)
- Perform QoS and QoE analyzes
- Export performance data to either XCAP (Accuver’s own post-processing tool for deeper ‘root cause’ analysis) or other 3rd party tools.
- Perform automated tests that are user-configurable
- Reduce OPEX by minimizing expenditure on test tools.
- Support indoor and outdoor use
- Mobile platform supported: and Android
Wireless Telecommunication Technology
CDMA/EVDO, 2G (GSM/GPRS/EDGE), 3G (UMTS/HSPA), LTE (4G-FDD & TDD), LTE-A, 5G NR, NB-IoT, WiFi
VoLTE, Voice, FTP, Web Browser, SMS, Email, Ping, YouTube, Netflix, Social media (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram), Skype/WhatsApp, Dropbox, Google Play and etc.
5G NR KPI Monitoring
PCI, SSB Index, BRSRP, BRSRQ, SINR, DMRS SNR, Frequency Offset, Time Offset, SS-RSRP, Subcarrier Spacing, Pathloss, RB Num(Avg,), MCS0 Index(Avg), MSC0 Mod. Rate(Q/16/64/256), PDSCH Throughput, MAC Throughput, PDCP Throughput, NR-ARFCN, DL Frequency, PDSCH BLER, UL RB Num(Avg), UL Allocated Slots, PUSCH BLER
More than half of today’s voice and data traffic is generated in indoor environments such as offices, shopping
malls, airports, subways and event venues. Such challenging locations require adequate portable mobile network
That is why Rohde&Schwarz mobile network testing (MNT) invented QualiPoc Android, a multifunctional
smartphone-based tool for troubleshooting voice and data service quality and RF optimization. As the premier
handheld troubleshooter, QualiPoc Android sets a new industry standard for smartphone based mobile network
QualiPoc is based on the latest commercial Android smartphones. It supports all mobile network technologies used
worldwide and covers multiple protocol layers as well as the IP stack in real time. QualiPoc Android provides extensive test functions for voice (including MOS), data, video streaming and app service tests to assess and reflect the real end-user experience (QoS/QoE) within a mobile network.
QualiPoc Android offers advanced channel and cell locking, a crucial RF optimization feature to control the quality and coverage of wireless networks. This enables mobile operators and testing service providers to implement fast and cost efficient on-site inspections, and it allows them to test and verify the antenna range by conducting active service and performance tests, including speech quality measurement for each cell sector at an antenna site.
QualiPoc Android provides an extensive set of service tests. These include call tests, voice quality (including POLQA, PESQ and SQuad08) as well as data tests, video streaming, and video quality. QualiPoc covers all test functions and latest technologies such as:
► 5G NR, LTE-FDD&TD-LTE, HSDPA, HSUPA, HSDPA DC, WCDMA, EDGE, GPRS, GSM, CDMA2000®, EVDO Rev. 0/A
► Full recording and decoding of protocol layers on the supported technologies: 3GPP, L2, L3, TCP/IP, IMS, SIP Rev. 0/A.
► Direct decoding of L3 text messages and TCP/IP, RTP packets on smartphones.
QualiPoc offers an intuitive, fully customizable user interface. Multiple standard and configurable monitors
and graphs can be selected to display measurements, parameters (KPIs) and test results in real time, including the full history. It also records and saves information in a measurement file for replay or detailed analysis with
Rohde&Schwarz MNT‘s postprocessing software.
The multifunctional QualiPoc Android is a cost-efficient and powerful pocket solution for every RF engineer who
performs daily tasks such as site verification and commissioning, troubleshooting and RF optimization.
QualiPoc Android offers a comprehensive set of RF optimization features and the full range of audio quality assessment tools. Voice quality testing algorithms, such as P.863 (POLQA) and SQuad, allow users to easily evaluate quality of services on voice calls in line with the latest ITU-T standards, including HD audio quality. Having not only the MOS for audio quality but also the RF parameters and application layer information available from a single handheld device, QualiPoc Android provides all important information that is crucial for troubleshooting and optimization.
QualiPoc Android offers three different audio quality algorithms (POLQA, PESQ and SQuad08) and supports multiple audio voice quality tests such as mobile-to-land unit and mobile-to-mobile in both directions UL/DL.
For video quality, Rohde&Schwarz MNT supports the J.343.1 hybrid no-reference encrypted (NRe) objective perceptual video quality measurement algorithm. It is designed for multimedia IP based video services when encrypted bitstream data is available, e.g. YouTube video streaming. The J.343.1 no-reference algorithm is especially designed for measuring video quality on live video content consumed by smartphones.
Nemo WindCatcher from Keysight Technologies, Inc. is the industry leading desktop drive test data post-processing tool for radio access network analysis. It is used by design and performance engineering, handset testing and technology development groups. Nemo WindCatcher software is a vendor-agnostic, multidata, multiwireless
access technology solution that provides the most comprehensive solution available in the market. It is loaded with robust out-of-the-box features for powerful data aggregation and analytical functionality, one-step analysis and detailed reporting.
Quickly identify and solve problems by using in-built analysis functionalities maximizing overall productivity and efficiency. Nemo WindCatcher can be used for analysis of indoor (DAS/Small cells) wireless coverage and performance as well as for outdoor macro sites. Nemo WindCatcher is intuitive and easy-to-use so you will realize improvements and efficiency gains immediately.
Nemo WindCatcher offers significant time saving with advanced automated features, including a single-click option to load large amounts of data files and multi-core processing functionality for faster data output and shorter wait times. Processed data sets can be appended and merged when more drive test data is collected eliminating
the need for reprocessing data. Nemo WindCatcher Client-Server automates key drive test use cases, such as acceptance, benchmarking, optimization, and monitoring, by deploying an automation server to work with multiple clients.
Wireless network operators can use Nemo WindCatcher to analyze large amounts of drive test data to enhance customer experience through efficient network optimization, new technology roll-out and troubleshooting. Operators can deploy new technologies, such as 5G, LTE-A and VoLTE, using the advanced analytics in Nemo WindCatcher. In-building deployment teams can use Nemo WindCatcher to verify distributed antenna
system (DAS) implementation and generate reports for commissioning of venues.
Analysis and troubleshooting
• Wireless technologies – Supports all major technologies such as 5G NR, LTE, LTE-A, WCDMA/HSPA, CDMA/EVDO, GSM, WiMAX™ and WiFi.
• Dataset manager & dashboards – Central repository view of processed datasets. View files, devices, and drive route of processed data quickly. Includes predefined dashboard views for quick overview of logs processed along with option for user to create their own dashboard views.
• Summary view – The consolidated dashboard view of processed data classified per device selection with metric menus for coverage, accessibility, retainability, mobility, integrity, and availability.
• Synchronization – The map, message windows, event windows / trees and information browsers are all synchronized during user troubleshooting.
• Compare and contrast data – The delta analysis feature helps you do a side-by-side comparison of devices, data sets during pre-post optimization and troubleshooting phases.
• Tooltip – The tooltip feature lets you automatically or selectively populate selected metrics, KPIs, etc.
• Online maps – Rich online maps with satellite views, street views, topographic, and terrain views.
• 2D/3D visualization – Conduct virtual site surveys and flexibility to toggle between 2D and 3D Google Earth views.
• 3D visualization of 5G NR field test data and beams
• Event correlation – Layer 1, 2 & 3 message extraction and the ability to map different events to messages.
• Packet trace data – Standalone TCP/IP/SIP troubleshooting using packet trace data to complement drive test data during troubleshooting.
• Link to bin feature – Link to bin along with the replay feature to visually follow a drive route to view drops, handoffs to serving cells, neighbor cells, etc.
• Data visualization – Visualize your processed data using advanced analysis features, such as time charts, table views, X-Y charts, and PDF/CDF histograms.
• RF analysis – Validate site coverage on public safety networks using RF analysis feature and built-in spectrum analyzer to identify and locate pockets of interference.
• Advanced neighbor analysis – Identify missing neighbors on your network using neighbor analysis.
• Failure Analysis – Dashboard identifies the failure events and detects the root cause of those events. Events are are identified in sector level and the location of the occurrence is shown on the map.
• Single button troubleshooting – Perform area analysis for the entire data set with one button intelligent metrics. Evaluate CINR, PCI pollution, and other KPIs with a single click.