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Iran’s Emerging Dominance in Missile Capabilities: From Hypersonic to Long-Range Precision

Iran has been steadily developing its missile capabilities in recent years, and it has now claimed to have developed a naval hypersonic missile. This is a significant development, as it would give Iran a new and more sophisticated weapon that could be used to target ships and other targets at sea. However, this claim raises questions about the technical feasibility of deploying hypersonic missiles from naval vessels, as well as the broader implications of Iran’s growing missile arsenal. Moreover, Iran’s progress in missile technology extends beyond hypersonic capabilities, encompassing various missile types and ranges, which collectively underscore the country’s intent to establish itself as a formidable player in the global military landscape.


A Hypersonic Ambition

In the arena of military technology, Iran’s regime has asserted a capability that only a select few countries on the planet possess – the ability to deploy hypersonic missiles from naval vessels.  Hypersonic weapons have captured the imagination of military strategists worldwide due to their unprecedented speed and potential to reshape warfare. Hypersonic missiles are capable of traveling at speeds of Mach 5 or more, which makes them much faster than traditional missiles. This makes them more difficult to intercept, as they can travel too fast for traditional air defense systems to track and shoot down.

Iran’s recent claims have ignited debates about their feasibility and broader implications.

On July 3rd, Iranian state news outlets reported that Rear Admiral Shahram Irani, the head of the Iranian Navy, proclaimed that the upcoming Damavand-2 frigate would be equipped with hypersonic missiles. This revelation has sparked questions about the technical aspects of this alleged capability. Although Iran has a history of showcasing its military advancements, such as the Qaher 313 fifth-generation stealth fighter in 2013 (later revealed as a ground mock-up), the context surrounding the Damavand-2 frigate appears different.

The Damavand-2 frigate, an apparent continuation or sub-variant of the Moudge-class light frigates, raises intrigue with its undisclosed specifications. Imagery analysis suggests a vessel with a displacement of around 1,500 tonnes and a length of approximately 100 meters. To contextualize, the UK’s Batch 2 River-class offshore patrol vessels exceed both displacement and length, making the Damavand-2’s purported capabilities all the more fascinating.

Deploying hypersonic missiles from naval vessels presents challenges, particularly the requirement for adequate space to house these sophisticated systems. Hypersonic missiles travel at speeds surpassing Mach 5, with certain variants reaching Mach 25 or beyond. By comparison, the US-Japanese RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block IIA, an exo-atmospheric anti-air missile, achieves speeds of around Mach 13. Measuring approximately 6.7 meters, the SM-3 is launched from vertical launch systems (VLS) aboard warships.

Iran’s assertion of equipping the Damavand-2 frigate with hypersonic missiles prompts queries regarding system integration into a relatively compact vessel. Hypersonic missiles necessitate intricate engineering, encompassing specialized launch mechanisms and guidance systems to realize their remarkable speeds. Overcoming these logistical challenges on a vessel with limited space remains a substantial feat.

Despite skepticism, experts acknowledge Iran’s potential. Harshavardhan Dabbiru, an aerospace and defense analyst at GlobalData, notes Iran’s capacity for indigenous missile design and manufacturing. The Fattah 2 hypersonic ballistic missile, with speeds of Mach 13-15 and a range of around 1,400 kilometers, serves as a potential basis for the Damavand-2’s armament. While Iran’s missile claims might be ambitious, they aren’t implausible, according to Dabbiru.

Beyond Hypersonic: A Multifaceted Arsenal

Iran’s missile capabilities extend beyond the realm of hypersonic weaponry. The country has demonstrated prowess in the development of various missile types, each catering to specific operational requirements and ranges. Notable examples include:

  1. Sayyad-2 Medium-Range Missile: Iran conducted its first test launch of the Talash air defense system on December 28, 2016, which included the Iranian-made Sayyad-2 medium-range, high-altitude surface-to-air missile. The Sayyad-2, a canister-launched iteration of the RIM-66 (SM-1) naval surface-to-air missile acquired from the US before the 1979 revolution, underscores Iran’s ability to adapt and enhance existing technologies.
  2. Bavar-373 Long-Range Air Defense System: Unveiled in August 2016, the Bavar-373 system represents Iran’s strides towards a homegrown defense shield. With its missile launcher, target-acquisition radar, and target-engagement radar, the Bavar-373 offers enhanced targeting capabilities and positions Iran as a force to reckon with in air defense.
  3. S-300 Missile Defense System: Iran’s air defense capabilities received a substantial boost with Russia’s delivery of the S-300 system in April 2016. The system’s swift readiness and ability to track and engage multiple targets simultaneously fortify Iran’s airspace protection. This partnership with Russia equips Iran with advanced technologies that elevate its air defense posture.
  4. Arash Very Long-Range Radar System: Iran’s development of the Arash radar system adds to its radar capabilities across different frequency bands. The system complements Iran’s comprehensive radar network, enhancing its ability to detect and track airborne threats across various ranges.
  • Shahab-3: A medium-range ballistic missile with a range of up to 2,000 kilometers.
    Shahab-3 missile
  • Khorramshahr: A solid-fueled variant of the Shahab-3 with a range of up to 2,500 kilometers.
    Khorramshahr missile
  • Fateh-110: A short-range ballistic missile with a range of up to 300 kilometers.
    Fateh-110 missile
  • Zolfaghar: A short-range ballistic missile with a range of up to 500 kilometers.
    Zolfaghar missile
  • Khalij Fars: A cruise missile with a range of up to 300 kilometers.
    Khalij Fars missile
  • Kheibar-buster: A long-range cruise missile with a range of up to 900 kilometers.
    Kheibar-buster missile
  • Fattah: A naval hypersonic missile with a range of up to 1,400 kilometers.
    Fattah hypersonic missile

Iran is also developing a number of other missiles, including a new generation of long-range ballistic missiles and hypersonic missiles.

These missiles pose a significant threat to Iran’s neighbors, as well as to the United States and its allies. They are also a source of concern for the international community, as they could be used to carry nuclear weapons.

Strategic Implications and Future Prospects

In summary, Iran’s growing missile capabilities encompass a diverse array of technologies, from hypersonic missiles to long-range air defense systems. These advancements are indicative of Iran’s determination to establish itself as a significant player in the global military landscape. While skepticism surrounds certain claims, experts recognize Iran’s potential for indigenous development and innovation in the realm of missile technology.

Iran’s claims of naval hypersonic capability carry significant implications that could reverberate throughout the region and beyond. One of the most immediate concerns is the potential initiation of an arms race in the already volatile Middle East. As Iran asserts its ability to deploy hypersonic missiles from naval vessels, neighboring countries like Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates may interpret this as a signal to bolster their own missile development efforts. The fear of being outmatched in the missile arena could trigger a cycle of escalating military expenditures, heightening regional tensions, and exacerbating the existing security dilemma.

The emergence of a viable hypersonic missile capability in Iran could also present challenges to the security of the Persian Gulf, a vital waterway for global commerce and energy transportation. Hypersonic missiles, characterized by their unprecedented speed and agility, pose a greater challenge for traditional defense systems. Their velocity makes interception a formidable task, thereby increasing the susceptibility of ships and other assets in the region to potential attacks. This could undermine the ability of the United States and its allies to ensure the safety of their maritime interests, potentially reshaping the balance of power at sea.

Furthermore, the introduction of hypersonic missiles to Iran’s arsenal might embolden the country to adopt more assertive tactics. If Iran believes that it possesses a credible hypersonic missile capability, it might perceive itself as having a strategic advantage, leading to a heightened sense of confidence in its military prowess. This confidence could translate into more aggressive actions, such as targeting shipping lanes in the Persian Gulf or initiating attacks against nations aligned with the United States. This prospect could significantly increase the risk of conflicts and escalations in the already tense Middle Eastern theater.

In conclusion, Iran’s claims of naval hypersonic capability extend far beyond the realm of technological achievement. They carry the potential to reshape the dynamics of the region in multifaceted ways. From triggering an arms race among neighboring nations to challenging the established maritime supremacy of the United States, and even emboldening Iran to adopt a more aggressive stance, the implications of this claim underscore the intricate web of security concerns that surround the pursuit of advanced military capabilities in an already complex geopolitical landscape.



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