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Electromagnetic and High Power Microwave Directed Energy Weapons will counter threat of Drone Swarms carrying IEDs, biological or chemical agents

UAV threat,  has wide spectrum. On one end is the security threat of terrorists weaponising small commercially available drones. ISIS is already using them in in Syria and Iraq to carry small improvised explosive devices. They can also be used to disperse biological or chemical agents. These are small in size (e.g., < 55 lbs.) making them difficult to detect, they fly at low altitudes (e.g., < 400 ft) which make them easily hidden by background urban structures, they are slow (e.g., < 90 kts) which make them difficult to differentiate from other targets like birds.  In addition they also have low IR signature and depending on model may generate small amount of acoustic noise.


Every year, a new generation of drones hits the shelves boasting longer ranges, better cameras, and intricate features that can be modified, exploited and weaponized. Combatants have even gone as far as modifying consumer drones capable of carrying and dropping homemade ordnance to military grade payloads at specific locations.


Other end is military threat of military UAVs of China, which is manufacturing full equivalent of western UAVs Yilong like Predator, Soaring Dragon like Global Hawks, Dark sword is UCAVs. One of their characteristic is most of them have large payload capability in tons because of which they can carry large amount of weapons. Endurance and stealth is also fast becoming close to American counterparts.


Countries are developing many Counter-drone technology, also known as counter-UAS, C-UAS, or counter-UAV technology, refers to systems that are used to detect and/or intercept unmanned aircraft. These range  from shoulder-mounted launcher system to physically capture it, silent cyber weapon that floors a drone instantly, anti drone cannons, Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) like jamming of command and control links and GPS spoofing,  counter drone Directed Energy Weapons both laser based and electromagnetic weapons.


Countries have also started employed them on the battlefield. When an Iranian drone threatened USS Boxer in the Strait of Hormuz in July 2019, US Marines aboard the warship reportedly brought down the threat with electromagnetic weapon, Light Marine Air Defense Integrated System. Speaking at the White House on 18 July 2019, Donald Trump said that USS Boxer, an amphibious assault ship of the U.S. Navy, destroyed the drone that threatened the U.S. warship by flying within 1,000 yards of it and ignored multiple warnings. Trump said the drone was “threatening the safety of the ship and the ship’s crew,” calling the downing a “defensive action.”


One of the counter drone system is Directed energy microwave weapons that convert energy from a power source – a wall plug in a lab or the engine on a military vehicle – into radiated electromagnetic energy and focus it on a target. The directed high-power microwaves damage equipment, particularly electronics, without killing nearby people. Today, research in high-power microwaves continues in the U.S. and Russia but has exploded in China.  Dozens of countries now have active high-power microwave research programs.


Drone detection and neutralization technologies

It is thus necessary to develop efficient and scalable counter-UAV systems (C-UAV) to ensure safe UAV operations. The US Department of Defense defines CUAS as a system that can detect, track, identify, and defeat an Unmanned Aerial System. C-UAV permit to detect and identify a malicious UAV and act on it using sensing and mitigation systems respectively.


UAV defense systems can be categorized in two main classes: ground-based and air-based solutions. Both solutions rely on sensing and mitigation systems, the former allowing to detect and identify a mUAV while the latter permits to act, from simple warning to the neutralization of the mUAV. The most prominent ones are ground-based systems such as radio frequency (RF) of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal jamming to disrupt the UAV communication and navigation systems  and net or laser guns which impact the physical integrity of the malicious UAV.


To countering UAV threat many drone detection and neutralization technologies have been developed. When it comes to physical systems, which aim at neutralizing the mUAV, solutions range from projectiles to eagles, nets and UAVs. One is the SkyWall system, a shoulder-mounted launcher system that fires a projectile that in turn deploys a large net to physically capture it, and then it also deploys a parachute to bring it down safely.


Phantom Technologies has launched Eagle 108 Tactical Jammer designed for the detection and jamming of drones. It has been designed to neutralise unauthorised drone / quadcopter that has entered a secured field / campus / sport event. The system uses passive detection scheme, scans using an array of directional antennas. Once a threat is detected, an automatic command to the jamming unit blocks all radio communication channels. Forcing the drone to drift away and lose communication with its operator. The detection radius is more than 1km and jamming radius is up to 2km.


US Army has modified its Counter missile Enhanced Area Protection and Survivability system to counter drones. System has been successfully tested by shooting down a class 2 unmanned aerial system using command guidance and command warhead detonation at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. The system uses a precision tracking radar interferometer to detect and track UAVs, a fire control computer to perform computations, a radio frequency transmitter and receiver and a standard 50-millimeter Orbital ATK Bushmaster III cannon to launch command guided interceptorsgnss. Army says it has range of more than a kilometer.


The most comprehensive commercial system is British AUDS system that claims to counter micro, mini and larger unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) or drones. The system can detect a drone five miles (8 km) away using electronic scanning radar, track it using infrared and daylight cameras disrupting the flight using an inhibitor to block the radio signals that control it. Latest version features a quad band radio frequency (RF) inhibitor/jammer, as well as optical disruptor. The quad band inhibitor disrupts the different licensed telemetry bands of commercial drones no matter where in the world they are designed and licensed for use. For example, both the 433 and 915 MHz frequencies commonly used by unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) can be disrupted as can the 2.4 GHz control band and the global satellite GNSS bands ( 1575 MHz, 1227, 1176, 1278 MHz)


The optical disruptor can be utilised for both pointing at a drone for identification purposes and disrupting the automatic gain control settings in the drone’s camera system such that the operator loses visibility. The optical disruptor can also provide a very precise identification of known UAV launch activity to any ground forces.


Next are Directed-Energy Weapons use directed electromagnetic energy as a means to degrade damage or destroy enemy equipment, sensors, facilities etc. The two types of DEW technologies currently being operationalized are high power lasers and high power microwave weapons.


High-power lasers, excite atoms to release bursts of coherent (single-frequency, single-phase) light that is focused with mirrors to a precise point on the target and destroys it by overheating. NATO notes that several demonstrations have shown the ability to destroy inflight UAVs with 10’s of kilowatts at ranges greater than 2 km. Based on low or medium power can dazzle  or destroy electro-optical sensors on target. High power – can defeat the target structure- Effectiveness depends on target construction, material, and range.


The Pentagon had been focusing on lasers as its directed energy weapon of choice. But lasers are heavy, require lots of power, can’t penetrate clouds, and can take as long as five seconds to zap a target. Adm. James A. Winnefeld, a former vice chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, argued for the alternative microwave approach in a recent article titled, “Don’t Miss the Boat on High-Power Microwave Defense.”


The Pentagon has been slow to embrace this new microwave technology, which China has been developing for more than a decade. But it’s finally getting serious attention. Former defense secretary Mark T. Esper just joined the Epirus board, and the Pentagon plans to start deploying the company’s counter-drone systems to U.S. forces around the world this year.


Electromagnetic directed energy weapons.

RF Directed Energy Weapons, either narrowband high-power microwave (HPM) or ultra wideband (UWB) uses high intensity concentrated electromagnetic radiation (CW, Pulsed or Impulsive high voltage) to irradiate the target at a distance that gets coupled into its  electronic equipments and disrupts its components, circuitry, and switches. Unlike Laser DEW, HPM DEW is in fact ‘SMART’ as it sneaks in and affects the target system through its most vulnerable points.


These types of directed energy microwave devices came on the scene in the late 1960s in the U.S. and the Soviet Union. They were enabled by the development of pulsed power in the 1960s. Pulsed power generates short electrical pulses that have very high electrical power, meaning both high voltage – up to a few megavolts – and large electrical currents – tens of kiloamps. That’s more voltage than the highest-voltage long-distance power transmission lines, and about the amount of current in a lightning bolt.


Plasma physicists at the time realized that if you could generate, for example, a 1-megavolt electron beam with 10-kiloamp current, the result would be a beam power of 10 billion watts, or gigawatts. Converting 10% of that beam power into microwaves using standard microwave tube technology that dates back to the 1940s generates 1 gigawatt of microwaves. For comparison, the output power of today’s typical microwave ovens is around a thousand watts – a million times smaller.


Although these high-power microwave sources generate very high power levels, they tend to generate repeated short pulses, output pulse on the order of tens of nanoseconds, or billionths of a second. So even when generating 1 gigawatt of output power, a 10-nanosecond pulse has an energy content of only 10 joules. High power is important in these weapons because generating very high instantaneous power yields very high instantaneous electric fields, which scale as the square root of the power. It is these high electric fields that can disrupt electronics, which is why the Department of Defense is interested in these devices.

a machine in a laboratory with a rectilinear funnel-shaped structure in the foreground and a long metal pipe receding into the background

They can be classified according to type of electromagnetic waveforms that are generated: wideband (upto 2GHz, > 10%), ultra wideband (upto 2GHz, > 25%) and narrowband (1 to 35GHz, < 10%). RF Directed Energy Sources, either narrowband high-power microwave (HPM) uses high intensity electromagnetic radiation to irradiate the target that gets couples into its electronic equipments and disrupts the components, circuitry, and switches inside it.


Narrowband HPM DEW technologies which have frequencies generally 1 to 35 GHz and bandwidth less than 10% of the center frequency. The narrowband environments are pulsed CW waveforms in the gigahertz range with pulse widths of the order of microseconds. High-power Lasers excite atoms to release bursts of coherent (single-frequency, single-phase) light that is focused with mirrors to a precise point on the target and destroys it by overheating .


Ultra wideband type tries to generate Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) like waveform that is generated usually when a nuclear device is detonated in the upper atmosphere. EMP is comprised of the fast rise time E1 component, the lightning type E2 component, and the solar flare type E3 component. These waveforms having instantaneous fractional bandwidth greater than 20% of mean frequency. One of the example of UWB weapons is Electromagnetic Bomb (e-bomb) being developed by RCI / TBRL. They include high power narrow pulse fields (pulse widths narrower than 100 ps), which may be repetitively pulsed (up to 1 million pulses per second).

Electromagnetic and Microwave weapons as counter Drone Swarms

The video, prepared by a defense start-up called Epirus, shows a swarm of eight drones advancing across a government test range in Nevada. As they come nearer, a mobile ground station fires a high-powered microwave pulse toward the attackers. The drones tumble from the sky like dead birds.


What’s potentially revolutionary about this approach is that using artificial intelligence, it can target precise frequencies with a densely concentrated pulse of energy. Epirus system, known as Leonidas, has been reported to disable an adversary drone but leave untouched a friendly one a few feet away. It can take down big, fixed-wing drones as well as tiny quadcopters. Epirus executives say their system can disable a drone’s rotor, or its camera, or its GPS navigation system, or even implant code to manipulate its movements.


Drones are becoming more pervasive every day. Rather than being used as innocuous hobby systems, drones can be employed as weapons intended to cause great harm at long standoff ranges. As they become more prolific and technically mature it is imperative that there be a safe way to protect airbases against these threats. There are several drone negating systems available; guns, nets and laser systems. THOR looks to extend the range to effect and decrease the engagement time over these other deterrent devices.


THOR is a counter-swarm electromagnetic weapon the Air Force Research Laboratory developed for defense of airbases. The system provides non-kinetic defeat of multiple targets. It operates from a wall plug and uses energy to disable drones. The system uses high power microwaves to cause a counter electronic effect. A target is identified, the silent weapon discharges in a nanosecond and the impact is instantaneous


THOR, a first of its kind system, stows completely in a 20 foot transport container, which can easily be transported in a C-130. The system can be set up within 3 hours and has a user interface that has been designed to require minimal user training. The overall cost to develop the technology was approximately $15 million dollars.





US Marine’s Light Marine Air Defense Integrated System [LMADIS]

The MADIS was developed specifically to combat the weaponized commercial drone development. It is equipped with state-of-the-art sensors, optics to track and monitor targets at extensive ranges, and kinetic capabilities to physically disable a UAS on approach. The broader Marine Air Defense Integrated System is meant to shoot down drones, fixed-wing aircraft, and helicopters and includes both non-kinetic (jamming) and kinetic weapons to down drones. The kinetic weapon is a 7.62-millimeter minigun mounted on the new Humvee replacement, the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle. The Marine Corps plans to eventually add laser weapons to LMADIS.

Light Marine Air Defense Integrated System [LMADIS]

LMADIS is a counter unmanned aerial system (counter-UAS) weapon consisting of two Polaris MRZR scooters: a command vehicle and a jamming vehicle. LMADIS consists of the RADA RPS-42 hemispheric air surveillance AESA radar system, Skyview RF Detection system and Sierra Nevada MODi RF jammer”  mounted on a MRZR buggy.


The uniqueness of the RPS-42 system lies in its ability to detect exceptionally small, low and slow-flying UAS – categorized as significant tactical threats to maneuver forces – which cannot be detected by most existing air defense radars. Advanced VSHORAD systems, especially those based on Directed Energy, require compact tactical radars that are able to detect these and other threats, operate on-the-move, and provide vital real-time threat information to the fire control system. All these critical capabilities are provided by the RPS-42 system – delivering volume surveillance and detection of multiple threat types, including the smallest threats.


The short-range S-band radar is highly sensitive and can spot a range of targets, including traditional helicopters and aircraft, as well as small radar signatures like ultralight aircraft and small drones. RADA’s RPS-42 Tactical Volume Surveillance Radar System, based on its Multi-Mission Hemispheric Radar (MHR), detects, tracks and classifies micro and mini UAS (Groups 1&2) at ranges of up to 10km. It accurately tracks the threats up to very high elevation angles, operates on-the-move, and introduces unprecedented performance-to-price ratio. In addition to UAVs and short-range RAM (Rockets, Artillery and Mortars), the system also detects and tracks other aerial targets, including fighter and transporter aircraft, helicopters, etc


A gyro-stabilized CM202 multi-sensor optical ball can positively identify aerial targets day or night. If the target is deemed unfriendly, a Modi jammer can be turned on to target and break the data-link between the drone and its controller on the ground.


LMADIS engagement procedure goes something like this: the RPS-42 detects the drone on radar, or alternately Skyview detects the back-and-forth radio signals between the drone operators and the drone itself. Next, the electro-optical/infrared camera is trained on the incoming drone to make a positive identification as friendly or hostile. If hostile, the Marines aim the MODi jammer at the drone and prevent the drone operators’ radio commands from reaching it. Gravity takes care of the rest.


The MODi jammer was tested against a variety of civilian drones, including the DJI Phantom 4 Pro, X8 fixed wing, and Airhawk. The C4ISRNet article quotes the program manager for LMADIS as stating “what we’ve realized is the UAS threat is ever-changing. One day the enemy’s flying Phantom Pros, the next day they’re flying a fixed wing with certain components. What the fleet’s really helping us identify is what they’re flying and how to defeat them, so we can turn back to the fleet and give them a better product to stay up to date with the enemy’s current threats.”


Modi II is one of SNC’s Electronic Warfare and Range Instrumentation (EWR) solutions. It is used both offensively and defensively to disrupt enemy communications on the battlefield.  SNC’s EWR software-definable ECM systems are configured for use in man-packable (backpack), vehicular, fixed-site and airborne applications. The Modi II system is state-of-the-art and is becoming a truly viable building block for a potential multi-function, networked, DOD system of systems architecture. It has industry-leading size, weight and power metrics and has become an exceptionally cost effective, sustainable capability set of the future.


Raytheon technologies defeat multiple UASs in USAF exercise

Raytheon has demonstrated to the US Air Force (USAF) the ability of its advanced high power microwave (HPM) and mobile high energy laser (HEL) systems to down drones. During the demonstration, the HPM and HEL technologies engaged and defeated multiple unmanned aerial system (UAS) targets.  Raytheon noted that these technologies can provide an affordable solution for the service to combat the growing UAS threat.  The system is mounted on a Polaris MRZR all-terrain vehicle and is designed to detect, identify, track and engage UASs. Raytheon Electronic Warfare Systems vice-president Stefan Baur said: “Countering the drone threat requires diverse solutions. HEL and HPM give frontline operators options for protecting critical infrastructure, convoys and personnel.”


The HPM technology, which uses microwave energy to disrupt drone guidance systems, allows users to focus the beam to target and instantly defeat drone swarms. The system features a consistent power supply to ensure virtually ‘unlimited’ protection from threats.

Asian Defence News: US Air Force Receives First Laser Counter-drone System from Raytheon

Raytheon Advanced Missile Systems vice-president Dr Thomas Bussing said: “After decades of research and investment, we believe these advanced directed energy applications will soon be ready for the battlefield to help protect people, assets and infrastructure.” The firm’s HEL and HPM were the sole participants in the experimentation demonstration under the directed energy systems category. Previously, these systems downed 45 unmanned aerial vehicles and drones in a US Army exercise, known as Maneuver Fires Integrated Experiment, held in Fort Sill, Oklahoma.


Raytheon’s “Phaser” high-power microwave (HPM)

A new video cleared by the Defense Department shows Raytheon’s “Phaser” high-power microwave (HPM) weapon in a demonstration at the U.S. Army Fires Center of Excellence at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. Raytheon used the swarm-destroying Phaser to bring down Flanker and Tempest drones during the live-fire demonstration conducted Sept. 30-Oct. 3, 2013. Three years later, the Defense Department has cleared the footage for public release. Raytheon says it has already reduced the size of the Phaser payload by half and is offering the system up for operational use.

704th Test Group successfully leading Directed Energy Experimentation Campaign > Air Force Materiel Command > Article Display

The HPM weapon is mounted on a 20-ft. trailer with power provided by an internal diesel generator. The Phaser system can detect and track threats using its own radar or be cued by third-party sensors. The device’s parameters can be set to “disrupt” or “damage.” In the demonstration offered to Aviation Week, , the Flanker and Tempest drones were detected, tracked and cued for destruction by a three-dimensional X-band Thales/Raytheon MPQ-64 Sentinel radar and vehicle-mounted Ku-band Close Combat Tactical Radar, with Raytheon’s radio-linked Command View-Tactical system providing command and control.


Chinese Engineers Shot Down a Large Drone

A group of Chinese engineers brought down a large, unmanned aircraft using a new electromagnetic pulse-type weapon in what could be China’s first test of EMP weaponry. First reported on by the South China Morning Post in August 2021, the test reportedly concentrated a powerful beam of electromagnetic energy on the aircraft during flight at 1,500 meters, or nearly 5,000 feet in altitude.


According to the report, the aircraft behaved “unexpectedly” after an EMP beam struck the aircraft. The aircraft “did not drop immediately, but veered abruptly from one side to another for a period. Flight data and analysis of debris recovered from the crash site suggested that sensitive electronic devices, including its satellite navigation system, cryoscope, accelerometer, barometric altimeter, and communication device, had not been damaged. The battery and motors also functioned properly until collision.” In all likelihood, the aircraft’s “flight control system malfunctioned, issuing an error control command,” an engineer involved with the live-fire event explained.


Russia develops High Power Microwave Weapon for protection against UAVs, Missiles and Rockets

In 2015, Russia’s United Instrument Manufacturing Corporation (UIMC), part of Rostec Corporation, announced that it developed a super-high-frequency gun for BUK missile systems. The gun can reportedly disable drones and warheads at a distance of up to six miles and is scheduled to be demonstrated in a series of private tests. The system is capable of out-of-band suppression of the radio electronic equipment of low-altitude aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and the warheads of precision weapons.

Russia Develops 'Microwave Gun' Able to Deactivate Drones, Warheads - Sputnik International

A representative from (state-owned) United Instrument Manufacturing Corp that built the weapon described the device to (state-owned) Sputnik News this way: The new system is equipped with a high-power relativistic generator and reflector antenna, management and control system, and a transmission system which is fixed on the chassis of BUK surface-to-air missile systems. When mounted on a special platform, the ‘microwave gun’ the impact range of the equipment is ten kilometers and capable of ensuring perimeter defense at 360 degrees


Russia’s Ranet E system

Russia had earlier developed Ranets E is a High Power Microwave (HPM) weapon system, first disclosed by Rosoboronexport in 2001, but little technical detail has been disclosed since then.


The weapon used an X-band pulsed 500 MegaWatt HPM source, generating 10 to 20 nanosecond pulses at a 500 Hz PRF, and average output power of 2.5 to 5 kiloWatts. The antenna is large enough to provide a gain of 45 to 50 dB in the X-band, for a total weapon weight of 5 tonnes. The weapon has been described as a “radio-frequency cannon” and Russian sources credit it with a lethal range of 20 miles against the electronic guidance systems of PGMs and aircraft avionic systems. Similar system could be used for neutralization of UAVs.


Directed energy Weapons are promising technologies for neutralizing UAVs but Increasing their efficiency and compacting their size are great technological and engineering challenges before they can be employed for the operational role.



Russia designs several mobile antidrone electromagnetic weapons

Russian defense enterprises designed a line of mobile antidrone electronic weapons. In December 2019, President Vladimir Putin inspected the Garpun-2M portable anti-drone weapon developed by New Technologies Telecommunications (NTT). The upgraded Garpun option blocks command channels and navigation. The portable complex can become an organic weapon on the battlefield to repel a surprise air raid. Garpun-2M is easile carried on the back. In operation, while  soldier supporting  on shoulder, aims the antenna at a drone to disrupt its GPS and ability  to determine it’s position and disrupt communications with the operator.  Another advantage is a small impact on the radio situation.


The operational range is at least 500 meters. Garpun-2M easily integrates into the multi-layered antidrone defense. Garpun-2M operates in eight frequency bands. The upgraded option has an additional 5150-5350 MHz band, a narrower angular pattern, better cooling and power capacity. A full charge powers Garpun-2M for 60 minutes non-stop. The consumed capacity does not exceed 220 Watt.


Pishchal is one of them. It was designed by Avtomatika Concern. REX-1 was designed by ZALA AERO to destroy drones in direct visibility. It successfully fights multicopters. REX-1 disables the drone, but does not destroy it. The vehicle loses communications with the operator and lands. It is suffice to press one button to make the weapon operational. REX-1 has a jammer to suppress satellite navigation GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou and Gaileo in a radius of five kilometers. The device can block GSM, 3G and LTE signals at a distance of one kilometer and jam various frequencies. It weighs 4.2 kg. The power battery ensures uninterrupted operation for three hours.


In June 2019, the Russian Stupor rifle was demonstrated for the first time. The portable electromagnetic gun is the latest design of the defense industry and exceeds available anti-drone weapons in several characteristics. Besides the use in the Russian armed forces, the rifle enjoys a good export potential, the Zvezda said.


US Army developing a directed energy system capable of disrupting, disabling or destroying the electronics on a remote target within milliseconds of detection.

Directed energy (DE) for the destruction of military targets, whether vehicles or communication systems, typically requires enormous amounts of power and long dwell times on target. Advanced tracking and aiming may be necessary to maintain DE on a precise location on a target long enough to eliminate the threat. The size and power requirements of such systems greatly limits the platforms from which such systems could be utilized. This topic seeks to alleviate both limitations by considering alternative solutions that eliminate threats through the disruption of a target’s electronic control systems rather than destroying the target by directing enormous amounts of power onto it as quickly as possible. For example, the coupling between electromagnetic radiation and electrons in solids suggests that short, high-intensity laser pulses rather than high-energy continuous wave lasers or microwaves may provide this alternative solution.


Even without reaching the electronics directly, the interaction between a laser pulse and a material can generate broadband radiation that may disrupt nearby electronics. Other potential solutions involving directed energy will also be considered. Any DE system able to remotely disrupt naturally packaged electronics in a realistic target in less than a few milliseconds is of interest, especially if the solution may be scaled to neutralize targets more than 1 km away.


PHASE I: The offeror will experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of remotely disrupting or disabling electronics representative of those found in military targets. By “disruption”, it is meant that the device electronics are temporarily disrupted or permanently disabled so that the target cannot perform its mission. Theoretical studies and/or modeling to explain the phenomenon employed and/or engineer system design characteristics as appropriate to the proposed solution should also be included. The deliverable for Phase I will be the design of the system that will be constructed and tested in Phase II.


PHASE II: The offeror will construct and deliver a system that can apply short-pulse directed energy on a remote target such that the target’s electronics are disrupted or permanently disabled. No specific target is necessary for a proposal to be of interest but it must be demonstrated that the technique can be applied to targets of military relevance. A system with a capability of disrupting or disabling military targets beyond 1 km is desired. The offeror should also demonstrate – through theory, modeling or experiment – the extent to which the system may disrupt or disable targets greater than 1 km away. The system should draw less than 1 kW average power when successfully disrupting or disabling electronics from up to 1 km. Beam divergence must be specified so that the trade space of targeting accuracy versus range can be evaluated as part of the deliverable.


PHASE III: The DE system must be outfitted with the ability to acquire and track targets. It must be ruggedized and made mobile. Field tests are to be conducted with various kinds of realistic targets representative of those found in military targets.


References and Resources also include:



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