“Climate change is an urgent and growing threat to our national security, contributing to increased natural disasters, refugee flows, and conflicts over basic resources like food and water. The present day effects of climate change are being felt from the Arctic to the Midwest. Increased sea levels and storm surges threaten coastal regions, infrastructure, and property. In turn, the global economy suffers, compounding the growing costs of preparing and restoring infrastructure.” Notes White House, National Security Strategy, February 2015.
Currently there are large number of countries experimenting with weather modification. There are 52 countries that have doing weather modification programs, increasing from 47 in 2013. In the USA alone there are 39 active weather modification programs according to Report of WMO Expert Committee on Weather Modification Research.
There are also fears that weather shall be weaponized as in the past. CIA chiefs fear hostile nations are trying to manipulate the world’s weather, a conference heard. However, he told the callers that any attempts to meddle with the weather on a large scale would be detectable. However US itself has been accused of using weather modification for military purposes. Professor Robock told the American Association for the Advancement of Science’s annual conference in San Jose, that the During the Vietnam War, US scientists tried to increase rainfall to hamper the enemy’s progress by spraying particles into the clouds. And the CIA seeded clouds over Cuba ‘to make it rain and ruin the sugar harvest’.
“Weather has always affected military operations, and as the climate changes, the way we execute operations may be altered or constrained . . . Climate change will affect the Department of Defense’s ability to defend the Nation and poses immediate risks to U.S. national security.”
Many considered HAARP as tool for weather warfare that could be used to triggering Earthquakes and mind control. Rosale Bertell, president of the international institute of concern of physical health said that HAARP operates as ‘a gigantic heater that can cause major disruptions in the ionosphere, creating not just holes, but long incisions in thee protective layer that keeps radiation from bombarding the planet’.
Even though USAF officially transferred its control of HAARP in 2015, it is speculated that there are other HAARP systems out there in the form of radar communication and surveillance systems that are rigged on top of mobile platforms that are deployable in any international waters around the world.
And now, NASA’s own satellite images have revealed what’s being referred to as “shocking proof of climate engineering.”According to Dane, Africa’s coastal regions are a hotbed for geoengineering efforts despite being referred to in the mainstream media as just the result of “dust” in the air.
To date, most research on countering the impacts of climate change has focused on mitigating climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions or on adapting human and natural systems to make them more resilient to the effects of a changing climate. Recently a committee was convened by the US National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to consider a third option, climate intervention, also known as geoengineering.
The main finding of the report is that climate intervention is not a substitute for mitigation or adaptation. Efforts to address climate change should continue to focus most heavily on mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in combination with adapting to the impacts of climate change because these approaches do not present poorly defined and poorly quantified risks and are at a greater state of technological readiness. Climate intervention strategies are at a very early stage of development.
“Technology advancements in five major areas are necessary for an integrated weather-modification capability: (1) advanced nonlinear modeling techniques, (2) computational capability, (3) information gathering and transmission, (4) a global sensor array, and (5) weather intervention techniques, write Dr. Barnes .
However, continuous improvement of supercomputing capability from petaflops to exaflops allow militaries to design weather modification programs. In latest rankings, Sunway TaihuLight, a system developed by China’s National Research Center of Parallel Computer Engineering & Technology (NRCPC), and installed at the National Supercomputing Center in Wuxi, maintains its number one ranking for the fourth time, with a High Performance Linpack (HPL) mark of 93.01 petaflops. In January, China’s national supercomputer centre said it would have a prototype exascale computer built by the end of 2017 and operational by 2020.
Carbon dioxide removal and sequestration
Carbon dioxide removal and albedo-modification techniques have been grouped up until now under the common term “geoengineering,” but they vary widely with respect to environmental risks, socio-economic impacts, cost, and research needs.
Carbon dioxide removal addresses the root cause of climate change — high concentrations of the greenhouse gas in the atmosphere — and generally have well-understood benefits and risks. The drawback, however, is that these approaches act slowly and are difficult to scale to the problem at hand. Strategies to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere are limited by cost and technological immaturity.
Ocean iron fertilization (OIF) is one approach to carbon dioxide removal that might bear adverse environmental consequences. The NAS Committee recommended more research before OIF could be considered as an effective or safe strategy.
Large-scale deployment would cost as much or more than replacing fossil fuels with low carbon-emission energy sources, the committee said. In particular, research is needed to minimize energy and materials consumption, identify and quantify risks, lower costs, and develop reliable sequestration and monitoring capabilities.
Technologies that prevent sunlight from reaching Earth’s surface could reduce average global temperatures within a few years, similar to the effects of large volcanic eruptions.
While many albedo-modification techniques have been proposed, the committee said two strategies that could potentially have a significant impact are injection of aerosols into the stratosphere and marine cloud brightening. The ‘marine cloud brightening’ technique modifies the low clouds to make them more reflective thereby cooling the climate.
Unlike carbon dioxide removal, these methods would not require major technological innovation to be implemented and are relatively inexpensive compared with the costs of transitioning to a carbon-free economy.
However, albedo-modification techniques would only temporarily mask the warming effect caused by high CO2 concentrations, and present serious known and possible unknown environmental, social, and political risks, including the possibility of being deployed unilaterally and should not be deployed at this time.
China’s radical $168 million weather control system
The Chinese government has approved a $168 million plan (1.15 billion yuan) to modify the country’s weather, potentially bringing more rain and snow across an area almost double the size of France. It’s one of the biggest programs of its kind, and will rely on four new planes, eight upgraded craft, 897 rocket launch devices, and 1,856 devices connected to digital control systems, according to the South China Morning Post.
With weather-modifying technology, the China Meteorological Administration estimates it will increase precipitation in an area of 960,000 sq km – 10 percent of the country’s territory.
Officials say the project will take three years to complete. Many countries, including China, have turned to ‘cloud seeding’ in the past to relieve drought. This process relies on the use of a catalyst, such as dry ice, to induce rainfall from the clouds. And, weather modification by firing chemicals into the sky has also become more popular across the country, according to SCMP.
Artificial rainfall enhancement has recently become a way to help ‘clean up’ the smog-filled air of the cities. According to He Shengcun, an official at the Qinghai provincial government’s ‘weather influencing’ office, these techniques have led to an increase in precipitation by 55 billion cubic metres from 2006 to 2016, SCMP reports.
China currently uses weather modification technology – including cloud seeding – to induce rain during droughts, to reduce hail, and to clear the skies ahead of prestigious international events, including the Beijing Olympics in 2008. China aims to use weather modification technologies to create more than 60 billion cubic metres of additional rain a year by 2020, it said in a document published at the beginning of last year.
Weather Warfare refers to manipulating climate or weather for military use. Weather Modification according to US air force document AF 2025 final report, “offers the war fighter a wide range of options to defeat or coerce an adversary’, capabilities, it says, extend to the triggering of floods, hurricanes, droughts and earthquakes;’ Weather modification will become a part of domestic and international security and could be done unilaterally… It could have offensive and defensive applications and even could be used for deterrence purposes. The ability to generate precipitation, fog and storms on earth or to modify space weather and the production of artificial weather all are part of an integrated set of [military] technologies.
A global, precise, real-time, robust, systematic weather-modification capability would provide war-fighting commander in chief CINCs with a powerful force multiplier to achieve military objectives, write Col Tamzy J. House and others in “Weather as a Force Multiplier: Owning the Weather in 2025.” Since weather will be common to all possible futures, a weather-modification capability would be universally applicable and have utility across the entire spectrum of conflict. The capability of influencing the weather even on a small scale could change it from a force degrader to a force multiplier.
Precipitation Enhancement and Suppression
While many military operations may be influenced by precipitation, ground mobility is most affected. Influencing precipitation could prove useful in two ways. First, enhancing precipitation could decrease the enemy’s trafficability by muddying terrain, while also affecting their morale. Second, suppressing precipitation could increase friendly traffic ability by drying out an otherwise muddied area
During Vietnam war in 1967, “cloud seeding techniques” were used under project POPEYE to prolong the monsoon season and block enemy supply routes along the Ho Chi Minh Trail. The public did not learn of this until 1974, two years after the program wound down in failure.
Fog Enhancement and Suppression
A research paper produced for the United States Air Force written in 1996 speculates about the future use of nanotechnology to produce “artificial weather”, clouds of microscopic computer particles all communicating with each other to form an intelligent fog that could be used for various purposes.
Smart materials based on nanotechnology could adjust their size to optimal dimensions for a given fog seeding situation and even make adjustments throughout the process. They might also enhance their dispersal qualities by adjusting their buoyancy, by communicating with each other, and by steering themselves within the fog. They will be able to provide immediate and continuous effectiveness feedback by integrating with a larger sensor network and can also change their temperature and polarity to improve their seeding effects. UAVs could be used to deliver and distribute these smart materials.
Army research lab experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of generating fog. They used commercial equipment to generate thick fog in an area 100 meters long. Further study has shown fogs to be effective at blocking much of the UV/IR/visible spectrum, effectively masking emitters of such radiation from IR weapons. This technology would enable a small military unit to avoid detection in the IR spectrum. Fog could be generated to quickly, conceal the movement of tanks or infantry, or it could conceal military operations, facilities, or equipment. Such systems may also be useful in inhibiting observations of sensitive rear-area operations by electro-optical reconnaissance platforms.
Storm Enhancement and Suppression
The desirability to modify storms to support military objectives is the most aggressive and controversial type of weather-modification. The damage caused by storms is indeed horrendous. For instance, a tropical storm has an energy equal to 10,000 one-megaton hydrogen bombs, and in 1992 Hurricane Andrew totally destroyed Homestead AFB, Florida, caused the evacuation of most military aircraft in the southeastern US, and resulted in $15.5 billion of damage.
However, as one would expect based on a storm’s energy level, current scientific literature indicates that there are definite physical limits on mankind’s ability to modify storm systems. By taking this into account along with political, environmental, economic, legal, and moral considerations, we will confine our analysis of storms to localized thunderstorms and thus do not consider major storm systems such as hurricanes or intense low-pressure systems.
In 1977, UN International Convention was ratified by UN general assembly which banned “military or other hostile use of environmental modification techniques having widespread, long lasting or severe effects”. It defined “environmental modification techniques” as ‘any technique for changing-through deliberate manipulation of natural processes – the dynamics, composition or structure of the earth, including its biota, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere, or of outer space.’ The substance of 1977 convention was reasserted in the UN Framework Convention on Climate change (UNFCCC) signed in 1992.
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